First World War

Article

May 29, 2022

World War I (also known as the Great War or War of Wars until the beginning of World War II) was a global war centered in Europe that began on July 28, 1914 and lasted until November 11, 1918. The war it involved the great powers from all over the world, which organized themselves into two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente between the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary. Originally the Triple Alliance was formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive, in violation of the agreement, Italy did not enter the war for the Triple Alliance. These alliances reorganized (Italy fought for the Allies) and expanded with more nations entering the war. Ultimately, more than seventy million military personnel, including sixty million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the greatest wars in history. More than nine million combatants were killed, largely because of technological advances that saw a massive increase in weapon lethality, but without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. It was the sixth deadliest conflict in human history and it subsequently paved the way for various political changes, such as revolutions in many of the nations involved. , the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Third Republic and Italy. On June 28, 1914, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia, was the immediate trigger for the war, which resulted in an ultimatum. of Austria-Hungary against the Kingdom of Serbia. Various alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, with which, within a few weeks, the great powers were at war; through their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the planet. On 28 July, the conflict began with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France, and a Russian attack on Germany. After the German march on Paris led to a stalemate, the Western Front turned into a battle of static attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army successfully fought Austro-Hungarian forces. , but was forced to retreat from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Additional battlefronts opened up after the Ottoman Empire entered the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915, and Romania in 1916. After a German offensive in 1918 along the Western Front, the Allies forced the German armies back. in a series of successful offensives and US forces began to enter the trenches. Germany, which had its own problem with the revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a ceasefire on November 11, 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war ended with the victory of the Allies. Events in local conflicts were as tumultuous as on the great fronts, tempting participants to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight an all-out war. By the end of the war, four great imperial powers — the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires — had ceased to exist. The successor states of the first two lost a large amount of their territory, while the last two were completely dismantled. The Central Europe map has been redrawn into several new smaller countries. The League of Nations, the forerunner of the