November 30, 2021

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transl. Rossía, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə] (listen )), officially Russian Federation (Russian: Российская Федерация, Rossiiskaia Federatsia, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijskərat] um fʲɪd) country located in northern Eurasia. With 17 075 400 square kilometers, Russia is the country with the largest area on the planet, covering more than a ninth of the land area. It is also the ninth most populous country, with 142 million inhabitants. It borders the following countries from northwest to southeast: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (the latter two through the Kaliningrad exclave), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and Korea North. It also has maritime borders with Japan, by the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and with the United States, by the Bering Strait. Russian history begins with the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognized ethnic group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries. Founded and directed by a noble class of Viking warriors and their descendants, the first Slav state, Russia of Quieve, emerged in the ninth century and adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures, what ended up defining Russian culture. The principality finally disintegrated and its lands were divided into several small feudal states. The successor state of Quieve was Muscovy, which served as the main force in the process of reunification of Russia and in the struggle for independence against the Mongolian Golden Horde. Muscovy gradually reunited the Russian principalities and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Quieve's Russia. Around the 18th century, the country had great territorial expansion through the conquest, annexation and exploration of vast areas, becoming the Russian Empire, between 1721 and 1917, which was the third largest empire in history, extending from Poland, in Europe, to Alaska, North America. The country has established power and influence around the world from empire times until it became the largest and main constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), between 1922 and 1991, the first and largest constitutional socialist state, recognized as a superpower and which played a decisive role after the Allied victory in World War II. The Russian Federation was created following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the successor state of the USSR. The country is the twelfth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth largest economy in the world at parity purchasing power and with the fifth largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear-weapon states in the world, in addition to having the largest arsenal of weapons of mass destruction on the planet. Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the BRICS, G20, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (OCX), EurAsEC, as well as being a prominent member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEI). The Russian people can boast a long tradition of excellence in all aspects of the arts and sciences, as well as a strong tradition in technology, including such important achievements as the first human spaceflight.


The name Russia is derived from the Russia of Quieve, a medieval state mainly populated by Eastern Slavs. However, this proper name later became more prominent and the country was usually called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (Russkaia Zemlia), which could be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". To distinguish this state from other derivatives of it, it is called Quieve Russia by historiography.

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