United Kingdom


December 8, 2021

United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (in English: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), is a sovereign island state located off the northwest coast of the continent European. The present-day United Kingdom was formed after the rise of the Irish Free State in 1922, which gained independence from the British crown. The sovereign state is located on the island of Great Britain, and the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, in addition to many other smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom with a land border, in this case, with the Republic of Ireland. Outside this land border, the country is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is connected to France by the Eurotunnel. The United Kingdom is a political union of four "constituent countries": Scotland, England, Northern Ireland and Wales. The government is governed by a parliamentary system, whose headquarters are located in the city of London, the capital, and by a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the head of state. The Crown dependencies of the Channel Islands (or Anglo-Norman Islands) and the Isle of Man (formerly the Crown's possessions) are not part of the United Kingdom, but form a confederation with it. The country has fourteen overseas territories, all remaining of the British Empire, which at its height owned nearly a quarter of the Earth's surface, making it the largest empire in history. As a result of the imperial era, British influence in the world can be seen in the language, culture and judicial systems of many of its former colonies, such as Canada, Australia, India and the United States. Queen Elizabeth II remains the head of the Commonwealth of Nations and head of state of each of the monarchies in the Commonwealth. The UK is a developed country, with the fifth (nominal GDP) or seventh (PPC) largest economy in the world. He was the world's first industrialized country and a major world power during the 19th and early 20th centuries, but the economic cost of two world wars and the decline of his empire in the second half of the 20th century reduced his role as a leader. on world issues. The United Kingdom, however, remained an important power with strong economic, cultural, military and political influence, being a nuclear power, with the third or fourth (depending on the method of calculation) largest military expenditure in the world. It has a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council and is a member of the G7, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Commonwealth of Nations. It was a member of the European Union until January 31, 2020.

Etymology and terminology

The Treaty of Union of 1707 declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "united in one kingdom under the name of Great Britain", although the new state is also referred to in the treaty United Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom. The term "United Kingdom" was used informally during the 18th century and the country was occasionally referred to as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain". The Act of Union of 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801 and created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The name United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was adopted by the Act of 1927 and reflected the independence of the Irish Free State and the Partition of Ireland in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland under the rule of the United Kingdom. Although the United Kingdom, as a sovereign state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales and (more controversially) Northern Ireland are also considered "countries", although they are not sovereign states. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own government.

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