Kingdom of Portugal


January 26, 2022

The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves was a kingdom that existed in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, southern Europe, precursor of the current Portuguese Republic. The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves existed between 1139 and 1910 (771 years), with 35 monarchs, spread over four dynasties: Afonsina or Burgundy (9), Joanina or Avis (9), Filipina or Habsburg (3 ) and Brigantina or Bragança (14). After the revolution of October 5, 1910 and the consequent establishment of the Portuguese Republic, this kingdom was succeeded by the First Portuguese Republic.


The County of Portugal (1093-1139) was a county that was part of the Kingdom of León (910-1230). The procedure for its independence took place in three key moments: The first, on July 26, 1139, when Dom Afonso Henriques de Borgonha, then Count of Portucale, was acclaimed King of Portugal internally; The second, with the Treaty of Zamora, on October 5, 1143, by which the Kingdom of León recognizes Dom Afonso Henriques as King; But it was only with the bull Manifestis Probatum of 1179 that the independence of Portugal was definitively recognized by the Papacy, the highest authority in international relations at the time. By this bull, the Pope recognizes the King of Portugal as his direct vassal. This was the beginning of the Afonsina (or Burgundy) dynasty, which, in turn, originated from the ducal family of Burgundy and ascendant of the last Portuguese royal family, the House of Braganza.


From the conquest of Ceuta in 1415, several campaigns began overseas, in the conquest of places in Africa, such as Ceuta and Tangier. Seeing the wealth with which people lived in the region, the Portuguese set out to discover more and more territories. The initial pretext of Christian conversion was now beginning to reveal itself as a true adventurous spirit, a taste for discovering and, at the same time, enriching. Portugal begins a long journey along the African coast, rediscovering Madeira and the Azores and discovering São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde, Angola and Guinea until D. João II, based on rumors he sought to clarify, begins planning a project that would launch Portugal among the world powers: a maritime trade route to India. The project becomes an enterprise: Vasco da Gama, already in the time of D. Manuel I, reached the Indian Ocean and spread the Portuguese presence along the East African coast, as far as India. To support this foundation, the Treaty of Tordesillas with Castile was followed, which resolved well in advance a friction that was foreseen between these two growing superpowers, in order to share this world that was now to be reached by sea. Meanwhile, through Christopher Columbus, new territory to the west, the later called West Indies, the Americas, became known. And it would be Pedro Álvares Cabral who would bring to the Crown, the largest and most important of all Portuguese overseas domains in all of history, the portion of South America later called Brazil, in 1500. With all its colonies established, Portugal quickly became an important commercial explorer, becoming the biggest world power at the time.

Portuguese Empire

The Kingdom of Portugal was never officially designated as an empire, being, therefore, a category of analysis to designate the period in which Portugal obtained the domain of regions outside the European continent. The conquest of Ceuta, which took place in 1415, is considered the starting point of the Portuguese empire. Over time, some colonies gained their independence, such as Brazil, which, despite being equated with Portugal in 1815, with its elevation to the status of a kingdom, only became independent on September 7, 1822, forming the Empire of Brazil, ruled by the Brazilian imperial family (a branch of the House of Bragança). On October 5, 1910, with the establishment of the republic in Portugal, the rest of the

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