Sergei Koroliov


January 27, 2022

Sergei Pavlovich Koroliov (in Russian: Сергей Павлович Королёв, Transl. Sergéj Pávlovič Korolëv, Russian pronunciation: [SʲɪRGʲEJ PAVɫəVʲɪTɕ KəRɐLʲɵF] (Listen); in Ukrainian: Сергій павлович корольoв) (JITOMIR, 30 December 1906Jul./ January 12 1907greg.—January 14, 1966) was one of the Soviet Union's leading rocket engineers and spacecraft designers during the US-USSR Space Race in the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many to be the father of practical cosmonautics. He was involved in the development of the R7, Sputnik and the launch of Laika, Belka and Strelka and the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space. projects, organization and strategic planning. Arrested on a high charge of being a "member of an anti-revolutionary and anti-Soviet organization" (which was later reduced to a "saboteur of military technology"), he was imprisoned in 1938 for nearly six years, including a few months in the Kolyma labor camp. . After his release he became a recognized rocket designer and a key figure in the development of the intercontinental ballistic missile program. He later came to direct the Soviet space program and was made a Fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, overseeing the successes of the Sputnik and Vostok projects, including the first manned orbital mission on April 12, 1961. His unexpected death in 1966 interrupted the implementation of its plans for a manned moon landing before the United States. Before his death he was officially identified only as Glavny Konstruktor (Главный Конструктор), or the Chief Designer, to protect him from a possible assassination attempt from the United States. Even some of the cosmonauts who worked with him didn't know his name and only knew him as "Chief Designer". As much as he understood the need for anonymity, the impossibility of recognition annoyed him. It was not until his death in 1966 that his identity was revealed and he received appropriate public recognition as the driving force behind Soviet achievements in space exploration during the aftermath of the International Year of Geophysics.


Koroliov was born in Zhitomir, capital of the Volhynian Governorate [en], in the Russian Empire. His father, Pavel Yakovlevich Koroliov, was born in Mahilou, the son of a Russian soldier and a Belarusian mother. His mother, Maria Nikolaevna Koroleva, was the daughter of a wealthy merchant from the city of Nizhyn, having a Zaporozhian Cossacks [en], Greek and Polish origin. His father moved to Zhytomyr to teach Russian. Koroliov grew up in Nizhyn under the care of her maternal grandparents Mykola Yakovych Moskalenko, who was a salesman for the Second Guild [en] and Maria Matviivna Moskalenko, daughter of a local Cossack. His mother had a sister, Anna, and two brothers, Yuri and Vasyl. Maria Koroleva was always away attending higher education courses for women in Kiev. As a child, Korolyov was stubborn, persistent and argumentative. Sergei grew up as a lonely child with few friends. He began to read at a young age and his skills with math and other subjects made him a favorite student, but he was the envy of his peers. He later stated in an interview that the torment of his peers as a child encouraged him to focus on his academic work. Her mother divorced Pavel in 1915 and in 1916 she married Grigory Mikhailovich Balanin, an electrical engineer who had been educated in Germany but who had to attend Kiev Polytechnic University due to the fact that German engineering degrees were not available. be recognized in Russia. After getting a

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