Public service

Article

July 6, 2022

Public service is a service that is provided to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly by the government (through the public sector) or indirectly (by companies). The term is associated with a social consensus (usually expressed through democratic elections) that certain services should be available to everyone, regardless of income, physical ability or intelligence. Even when public services are neither publicly provided nor publicly funded, for social and political reasons they are often subject to regulation going beyond what applies to most economic sectors. Public policies when made in the public interest and motivations can provide public services. Public service is also a course that can be studied at a college or university. Examples of public services are fire brigade, police, air force and paramedics.

Sectors

Public services can be associated with fundamental human rights (such as the right to water). The Volunteer Fire Department and the Ambulance Corps. are institutions with a mission to serve the community. A service is helping other people with specific needs or wants. Here, care ranges from a doctor curing an illness, to a repairman, to a food pantry. In modern developed countries, the term "public services" (or "services of general interest") often includes: Courts; Electricity; Education, eg state (public) schools, public universities, etc.; Emergency services, (eg Fire, police, civil defense, etc.); Environmental Protection; Health care; Military; Public transportation; Public buildings; Social services (eg public housing, social assistance, food subsidies, etc.); Telecommunications; Urban planning; Transport infrastructure; Waste management (eg wastewater, solid waste, recycling, etc.); Water supply network.

Public administration

In modern democracies, public service is often performed by employees hired by elected officials. Government agencies are not profit-oriented and their employees are motivated very differently. Studies of his work have found contrasting results, including higher levels of effort and shorter working hours. A UK survey found that private sector hiring managers do not credit government expertise as much as private sector expertise. Public workers tend to earn less in wages when adjusting for education, although this difference is reduced when benefits and hours are included. Civil servants have other intangible benefits, such as greater job security.

Features

A public service can sometimes have the characteristics of a public good (being non-rival and non-excludable), but most are services that can (according to prevailing social norms) be under-provided by the market. In most cases, public services are services, that is, they do not involve the manufacture of goods. They can be provided by local or national monopolies, especially in sectors that are natural monopolies. They can involve results that are difficult to attribute to specific individual effort or difficult to measure in terms of key characteristics such as quality. They often require high levels of training and education. They can attract people with a public service ethos who want to give something to the general public or community through their work.

History

Governing bodies have long provided basic public services. The tradition of keeping the ci