Afghanistan earthquake of June 2022

Article

July 5, 2022

A 6.2 moment magnitude (MW) scale earthquake struck the Durand Line between Afghanistan and Pakistan on June 22, 2022 at 01:24:36 AFT (June 21, 2022, 20:54:36 UTC). The earthquake destroyed hundreds of homes in Afghanistan. According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake measured 5.9 on the moment magnitude scale and occurred at a depth of 10 km (6.2 mi). It was felt in the southern parts of India and Pakistan's capital Islamabad, the eastern province of Punjab and Iran. Some factors led to a disproportionate number of casualties for the size of the shock, with at least 1,193 dead and 3,000 injured.

Tectonic configuration

Much of Afghanistan is situated in a wide continental deformation zone within the Eurasian Plate. Seismic activity in Afghanistan is influenced by subduction of the Arabian Plate to the west and oblique subduction of the Indian Plate to the east. The Indian Plate subduction rate along the continental convergent boundary is estimated to be 39 mm/year or higher. Transpression due to plate interaction is associated with high seismicity within the shallow crust. Seismicity is detectable at a depth of 300 km (190 mi) below Afghanistan due to plate subduction. The Chaman Fault is a large transform fault associated with large shallow earthquakes that form the transpressional boundary between the Eurasian and Indian plates. This zone consists of active seismic thrust and slip faults. This quake is about 500 km (300 miles) north-northeast of a deadly 6.4 magnitude earthquake that occurred on October 10, 2008 in western Pakistan, which killed 215 people and destroyed several villages due to landslides. triggered.

Earthquake

The earthquake was the result of shallow landslide faults. Initially reported as a 6.1 magnitude event by the USGS at a depth of 51 kilometers, it was later revised to 5.9. The United States Geological Survey said it occurred along a left lateral fault or right lateral fault. The GEOSCOPE Observatory reported the earthquake at a magnitude of 6.2 MW at a depth of 6 km (3.7 mi). The agency stated that it proposed two failure solutions. The first was a south-southwest–northeast, 70° west–northwest fault plunging into the left lateral fault. A second solution is on a west-northwest-east-southeast fault, almost vertical and right lateral. The Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center reported the magnitude as 6.1 MW.

Impact

Afghanistan

Authorities confirmed that the earthquake resulted in a total of 1,000 deaths and 1,500 injuries. It is the deadliest earthquake in Afghanistan in more than 20 years. Poor building practices and building materials contributed to the high death toll. A USGS seismologist said that sisml was destructive due to its shallow depth of focus and epicenter in a densely populated and landslide risk area where buildings are not designed to withstand ground shaking. The head of a charity organization said the death toll was likely to rise because the earthquake affected a region far from medical facilities and occurred at night when most people slept in their homes. More than 25 villages were nearly wiped out. Schools, hospitals, houses and mosques collapsed. At least 381 of the more than 1,000 deaths were from Pakita. However, it is unclear whether these figures have been confirmed by the government or if there have been more unrecorded deaths. In one village, 17 family members died when their house collapsed, with only one member surviving. In the Gayan district of Pakita, approximately 1,800 houses, or 70% of the houses in the district, were destroyed. The Spera district of Khost suffered the loss of 40 residents and 95 were injured. The wounded were transported