December 8, 2021

Sudan (Arabic: السودان; romaniz.: As-Sudan; English: Sudan), officially the Republic of Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان, transl.: Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān; English: Republic of the Sudan), is an African country, bordered to the north by Egypt, to the east by the Red Sea, where it borders Saudi Arabia, by Eritrea and Ethiopia, to the south by South Sudan and to the west by the Central African Republic, Chad and Libya. The River Nile divides the country into two halves: the east and the west. Its predominant religion is Islam. Nearly a fifth of Sudan's population lives below the international poverty line, living on less than $1.25 a day. Until 2011, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab World, when South Sudan broke up in an independent country after a referendum on independence. Sudan is today the third largest country in Africa (after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo) and also the third largest country in the Arab world (after Algeria and Saudi Arabia). Its area consists of 1 886 068 km². The nation is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Arab League, Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Non-Aligned Movement of Countries, as well as an observer at the World Trade Organization. Its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial center of the nation. It is a democratic and representative federal presidential republic. Sudan's policies are regulated by the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law. Much of Sudan's history is marked by ethnic conflicts, in addition to two ongoing internal conflicts (one in the southern region and the other in the Darfur region) and two civil wars, between 1955 and 1972 and 1983 and 2005. There are numerous cases of cleansing ethnicity and slavery in the country. The Corruption Perceptions Index named Sudan the fourth most corrupt country in the world. According to the 2013 Global Hunger Index, Sudan has a GHI indicator value of 27.0, indicating that the country has an "alarming state of famine", making it the fifth hungriest nation in the world. Its Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.414 ranks it as one of the lowest levels of human development in the world.



The Kingdom of Cush was an ancient state in Nubia centered on the inflows of the Blue Nile, White Nile and Rio Atbara. It was created after the collapse of the Bronze Age and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. It was centered on Napata in its early stages. After King Cashita ("the Cushite") invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Cushite kings were ordained as pharaohs of Egypt's twenty-fifth dynasty, a century before they were defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Cushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to Sinai. King Piie tried to expand the empire in the Near East, but was stopped by the Assyrian king Sargon II. The Kingdom of Cush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although illness among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between King Taraca and Assyrian King Sennacherib was a turning point in Western history, when the Nubians were defeated by the Assyrians in their attempt to gain a foothold in the Near East. Sennacherib's successor, Assaradan, went further and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taraca and leading the Nubians from Egypt. Taraca fled back to his homeland, where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony; however, King Tantamani made a final attempt to regain certain Egypt. Assaradan died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to drive him out. Nonetheless

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