October 19, 2021

An ocean liner is a career vessel specifically between Europe and America. Ships can also transport cargo or mail and can sometimes be used for other purposes (such as pleasure cruises, hospital ships, Troop transport, etc.). Transatlantic travel began in the 19th century. With the advent of the steam engine, ships no longer needed to depend on wind and other weather conditions to make their voyages. Intercontinental trade for ever-increasing distances also made it necessary to improve travel. The final step in transatlantic travel was taken when the SS Sirius left Liverpool and arrived in New York eighteen days later. Soon after, the SS Great Western broke the record and with it began the tradition of the Blue Streamer. By the beginning of the 20th century, travel was already well developed and with that development came competition for supremacy. Germans, Brits and French compete with each other in terms of speed, luxury, size, and comfort. In the quest for supremacy, Norddeutscher Lloyd built the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Cunard responded with the RMS Mauretania and RMS Lusitania, while the White Star Line responded with the Olympic Class, ships that become construction models for the world. During World Wars I and II, ocean liners were used for troop transport and hospital ships. After the war ended, ocean liners lost ground with the development of commercial aviation, which made transatlantic travel unnecessary. In 1952, the SS United States became the last transatlantic ship to win the Blue Pennant. The Queen Elizabeth 2 was retired in 1998, with the RMS Queen Mary 2 becoming the last liner in operation today.


19th century

In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and intercontinental trade made it imperative to develop secure links between continents. Being at the top among the colonial powers, the UK needed stable sea routes to connect different parts of its empire: Far East, India, Australia, etc. The birth of the concept of international water and the lack of any claim to it simplified navigation. In 1818, Black Ball Line, with a fleet of sailboats, offered the first regular passenger service with an emphasis on passenger comfort. In 1807, Robert Fulton was able to apply steam engines to ships. He built the first ship powered by this technology, the Clermont, which managed to travel from New York to Albany in thirty hours. Soon after, other vessels were built with this innovation. In 1816, the Elise became the first steamship to cross the English Channel. Another important advance came in 1819. When the SS Savannah became the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean. He left the city of the same name and arrived in Liverpool, England, in 27 days. Most of the distance was covered by sailing; steam power was not used for more than 72 hours during the trip. Public enthusiasm for the new technology was not great, as none of the thirty-two people who booked a seat on board boarded the ship for that historic voyage. Although Savannah had proven that a steamship was capable of crossing the ocean, the public was not yet prepared to rely on these means of transport on the open sea, and in 1820 the steam engine was removed from the ship. Work on this technology continued. and a new step was taken in 1833. When Royal William managed to cross the Atlantic using mainly steam power throughout the voyage. The candle was only used when cleaning the boilers. There were still many skeptics and, in 1836, the scientific writer Dionysius Lardner declared that: "Like the project of taking the trip directly from Nova

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