Vaccine against COVID-19

Article

October 19, 2021

Vaccines against COVID-19 are the set of studies and scientific experiments for the development of a vaccine against COVID-19. As soon as the pandemic began to show a high number of contagions around the world, many laboratories began to develop and test vaccines to eradicate the pandemic. In phase III developmental studies, several vaccines against COVID-19 have shown up to 95% efficacy in preventing symptomatic infections of the disease. In March 2021, 12 vaccines were authorized by at least one national regulatory authority for public use: two RNA vaccines (Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna), four conventional inactivated ones (BBIBP-CorV, CoronaVac, Covaxin and CoviVac), four of viral vector (Sputnik V, Oxford–AstraZeneca, Convidecia and Janssen of Johnson & Johnson) and two of protein subunit (EpiVacCorona and RBD-Dimer). In total, as of March 2021, 308 vaccine candidates were at various stages of development, with 73 in clinical research, including 24 in phase I trials, 33 in phase II trials, and 16 in phase III. in phases that prioritize those at higher risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as health professionals. As of March 25, 2021, 508.16 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered worldwide based on official reports from national health agencies. AstraZeneca-Oxford expects to produce 3 billion doses in 2021, Pfizer-BioNTech 1.3 billion doses and Sputnik V, Sinopharm, Sinovac and Johnson & Johnson 1 billion doses each. Moderna aims to produce 600 million doses and Convidecia 500 million doses in 2021. In December 2020, more than 10 billion doses of vaccines were ordered by several countries, with about half of the doses purchased by countries people, who comprise only 14% of the world's population.

Latest updates

On March 11, 2021, Novavax announced that the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine had an overall efficacy of 96.4% and would prevent 100% of severe covid cases; Also on the 11th, the EMA announced that it had cleared the use of Jannsen's vaccine in the European Union; On February 27, the FDA announced that it had cleared Janssen's vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) for emergency use in adults in the United States; On February 26, the Government of Brazil announced that it would purchase 20 million doses of the Indian vaccine Covaxin; On February 24, Ghana became the first country to receive vaccines from the WHO Covax Facilty program.

Approved vaccines

The following vaccines were approved for emergency use in September 2021.

Vaccines under study

Production process

Pre-clinical research

Overall vaccine development is 84 to 90% flawed. As covid-19 is caused by a new virus, the risks associated with developing a successful vaccine at all stages of preclinical and clinical research are possibly even higher. To assess potential vaccine efficacy, computer simulations and new covid-specific animal models are being developed multinationally, but these methods are not tested for unknown characteristics of the covid-19 virus. 19 will have limitations due to toxicity, ineffectiveness in inducing immune responses or dosing failures in laboratory animals or due to underfunding. The probability of success for an infectious disease vaccine candidate to overcome preclinical barriers and reach Phase I is 41 to 57%. Committing to first-time human testing of a vaccine candidate represents a substantial capital cost, estimated at $14 million to $25 million, reaching up to $70 million. For comparison, during

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