Vaccine against COVID-19
October 19, 2021
Vaccines against COVID-19 are the set of studies and scientific experiments for the development of a vaccine against COVID-19. As soon as the pandemic began to show a high number of contagions around the world, many laboratories began to develop and test vaccines to eradicate the pandemic. In phase III developmental studies, several vaccines against COVID-19 have shown up to 95% efficacy in preventing symptomatic infections of the disease. In March 2021, 12 vaccines were authorized by at least one national regulatory authority for public use: two RNA vaccines (Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna), four conventional inactivated ones (BBIBP-CorV, CoronaVac, Covaxin and CoviVac), four of viral vector (Sputnik V, Oxford–AstraZeneca, Convidecia and Janssen of Johnson & Johnson) and two of protein subunit (EpiVacCorona and RBD-Dimer). In total, as of March 2021, 308 vaccine candidates were at various stages of development, with 73 in clinical research, including 24 in phase I trials, 33 in phase II trials, and 16 in phase III. in phases that prioritize those at higher risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as health professionals. As of March 25, 2021, 508.16 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered worldwide based on official reports from national health agencies. AstraZeneca-Oxford expects to produce 3 billion doses in 2021, Pfizer-BioNTech 1.3 billion doses and Sputnik V, Sinopharm, Sinovac and Johnson & Johnson 1 billion doses each. Moderna aims to produce 600 million doses and Convidecia 500 million doses in 2021. In December 2020, more than 10 billion doses of vaccines were ordered by several countries, with about half of the doses purchased by countries people, who comprise only 14% of the world's population.