Unmanned aerial vehicle

Article

August 12, 2022

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), also known as remotely piloted aircraft (ARP) or drone (from the English, drone), is any type of aircraft that can be controlled in the 3 axes and that does not require on-board pilots to be guided (DECEA, 2010). These types of aircraft are remotely controlled by electronic and computational means, under the supervision of humans, or even without their intervention, through Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).

History

The first use of unmanned aerial vehicles was in July 1849 via balloons by Austrian forces against the city of Venice. Variations of radio-controlled autonomous planes were also developed during World War I, actor Reginald Denny created a radio-controlled plane company in the 1930s, several radio-controlled planes were used in World War II, in 1951 the Ryan Firebee, during the Cold War numerous UAVs were built mainly for espionage missions, with the miniaturization of technologies, they returned to be used on a large scale during the Gulf War. Drones were designed for military purposes and were inspired by the German V-1 flying bombs and harmless radio-controlled model airplanes. These flying machines were conceived, designed and built to be used in missions traditionally of high risk for humans, in the areas of military intelligence, artillery fire support and control, air support to infantry and cavalry troops on the battlefield, control of cruise missiles, urban, coastal, environmental and border patrol activities, search and rescue activities, among others. They are often preferred for missions that are "dull or dangerous" for manned aircraft such as law enforcement and firefighting, and with non-military security such as pipeline surveillance. Currently, the development of research and manufacturing of UAVs are carried out and stimulated, mainly, by the US military, by the Israeli Armed Forces. Drones have been one of the main instruments of US military strategy for several years, but 51 states already have this technology. According to reports by the London-based Bureau of Investigative Journalism (BIJ), between 2,629 and 3,461 people were killed since 2004 in Pakistan, by CIA and DoD drone attacks. Among the victims, an estimated 475 to 891 were civilians. In recent decades, drones have been used mainly in Kosovo, Chad, and also in American attacks on Pakistan and against maritime piracy. It is estimated that from 2008 to 2012, the United States carried out 145 attacks in Libya, 48 in Iraq. and over 1,000 in Afghanistan using drones. The British military from July 2013 launched 299 drones to Afghanistan in its offensives.On January 24, 2012, the United Nations launched a project called Naming the Dead ("Naming the Dead"), with investigate the deaths of civilians and militants by 25 US drone strikes in Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Afghanistan and the Palestinian Territories. The investigation is in response to complaints about the deaths of civilians, including children, during drone strikes in Yemen. According to the UN Special Rapporteur on the protection of human rights in the fight against terrorism, "the exponential increase in the use of drone technology in various situations represents a real challenge for current international law". According to official data, the Predator and Reaper drones fired 506 missiles in 2012 in Afghanistan, up from 294 in 2011 - an increase of 72% - although total US air strikes decreased by 25% over the same period. 2013, 16 civilians were killed and 10 were injured in a