manned space flight

Article

October 19, 2021

A manned spaceflight is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being directly operated by the human crew on board. Spacecraft can also be operated remotely from ground stations on Earth, or autonomously without any direct human involvement. People trained for space flight are called astronauts, cosmonauts, or taikonauts; and non-professionals are referred to as spaceflight participants. The first human in space was Yuri Gagarin, who piloted the Vostok 1 spacecraft, launched by the Soviet Union on April 12, 1961 as part of the Vostok program. Humans have traveled to the moon nine times between 1968 and 1972 as part of the United States' Apollo program, and have had a continuous presence in space for 20 years and 252 days on the International Space Station (ISS). The United States and China are the only countries with public or commercial human spaceflight programs. Non-governmental space flight companies have been working to develop their own human space programs, for example, for space tourism or commercial space research. The first private human spaceflight launch was a suborbital flight on SpaceShipOne on June 21, 2004. The first commercial orbital crew launch was by SpaceX in May 2020, transporting, under government contract, astronauts to the ISS.

Landmarks

By achievement

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin was the first human in space and the first in Earth orbit on Vostok 1. July 17, 1962 or July 19, 1963 Robert M. White or Joseph A. Walker (depending on the definition of the space boundary) was the first to pilot a spacecraft, the North American X-15, on July 17, 1962 (White) or July 19, 1963 (Walker ). March 18, 1965 Alexei Leonov was the first to walk in space. December 15, 1965 Walter M. Schirra and Tom Stafford were the first to stage a space rendezvous, piloting their Gemini 6A spacecraft to keep the station within a foot (30 cm) of the Gemini 7 for more than 5 hours. March 16, 1966 Neil Armstrong and David Scott were the first to meet and dock, piloting their Gemini 8 spacecraft to dock with an unscrewed Agena Target Vehicle. December 21-27, 1968 Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William Anders were the first to travel beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) and the first to orbit the Moon on the Apollo 8 mission, which orbited the Moon ten times before returning to Earth. July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first to land on the moon during Apollo 11. longest time in space Valeri Polyakov performed the longest spaceflight, from January 8, 1994 to March 22, 1995 (437 days, 17 hours, 58 minutes, and 16 seconds). Gennady Padalka spent most of her total time in space on various missions, 879 days. Longest duration manned space station The International Space Station has the longest period of continuous human presence in space, November 2, 2000 to the present (20 years and 252 days). This record was previously held by Mir, from Soyuz TM-8 on September 5, 1989 to Soyuz TM-29 on August 28, 1999, a period of 3,644 days (almost 10 years).

By nationality or gender

April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first Soviet and the first human to reach space on Vostok 1. May 5, 1961 Alan Shepard became the first American to reach space on Freedom 7. February 20, 1962 John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. June 16, 1963 Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman to go into space and orbit the Earth. March 2, 1978 Vladimír Remek, a Czechoslovak, became the first non-American and non-Soviet in space, as part of

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