August 11, 2022

Australia (English Australia, IPA: [əˈstreɪljə], from Latin australis - “southern”), the official form is the Commonwealth of Australia, IPA: [ˈkɒm.ənˌwɛlθ əv əˈstreɪljə]) is a state in the Southern Hemisphere, occupying the mainland of the same name, the island of Tasmania and several other islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans; is the sixth largest state in the world. East Timor, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea are located to the north of the Commonwealth of Australia, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands to the northeast, and New Zealand to the southeast. The mainland of the Commonwealth of Australia is separated from the main island of Papua New Guinea by the Torres Strait with a minimum width of about 150 km, and the distance from the Australian island of Boigu to Papua New Guinea is about 5 kilometers. The population as of December 31, 2018 was estimated at 25,180,200, with the majority living in cities on the east coast. Australia is one of the developed countries, being the thirteenth largest economy in the world, and has the sixth largest GDP per capita in the world. Australia's military spending is the twelfth largest in the world. With the second highest Human Development Index, Australia ranks high in many areas such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights. Australia is a member of the G20, OECD, WTO, APEC, UN, Commonwealth, ANZUS, AUCUS and the Pacific Islands Forum.

Etymology of the name

The term "Australia" (English Australia, [əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə] in Australian English) comes from lat. australis ("southern"). In colloquial Australians, the word Oz is used to refer to Australia. Australians use the word Aussie ([ˈɒzi]) to refer to the adjective "Australian". Legends of the Unknown Land of the South (lat. Terra Australis Incognita) - "unknown land in the south" - date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography, despite not being based on any knowledge of the continent itself. The earliest documented use of the word "Australia" in English was written