Alexander the Great
July 6, 2022
Alexander the Great (Alexander III the Great, other Greek Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' ὁ Μέγας; presumably July 20/23 or October 6/10, 356 BC, Pella - June 10/13, 323 BC, Babylon) - the king of Ancient Macedonia from the Argead dynasty (from 336 BC), an outstanding commander, the creator of a world power that collapsed after his death. Having ascended the throne at the age of 20 after the death of his father, Philip II, he suppressed the uprising of the Thracians and re-subjugated Greece, where the rebellious Thebes were destroyed. In 334 BC. e. Alexander crossed into Asia Minor, thus starting a war with the Persian state. Under Granicus, he defeated the satraps, and under Issus (333 BC) - the king Darius III himself, after which he subjugated Syria, Palestine and Egypt. In 331 BC. e. at Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander won a decisive victory. Darius was later killed; Alexander, having occupied the hinterland of Persia, took the title "king of Asia", surrounded himself with representatives of the eastern nobility and began to think about conquering the world. For three years (329-326 BC), he conquered Central Asia, and then invaded India, but the tired army refused to go further. Alexander turned back and in 324 B.C. e. arrived in Babylon, which became its capital. The following year, while preparing for a campaign in Arabia, Alexander died at the age of 32. The power created during the conquests soon fell apart, divided between the commanders of the king - the Diadochi. Nevertheless, thanks to the campaigns of Alexander, the spread of Greek culture in the East began, which laid the foundation for Hellenism. Alexander in ancient times was recognized as one of the greatest generals in history. His name was actively used in political propaganda. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular books in Europe and a number of regions in Asia and Africa was The Romance of Alexander, which filled the biography of the title character with fictional episodes; in the Muslim tradition, Alexander began to be identified with Dhu-l-Qarnayn. During the Baroque era, the Macedonian king became a popular character in theater and painting. In Western historiography, the king is known as Alexander the Great.