Al-Qaeda

Article

August 20, 2022

Al-Qaeda (Arabic القاعدة‎, al-qāʿidah, IPA: /ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ/, “base”, “base”, “foundation”, “principle”) is one of the largest Islamist international terrorist organizations. Created in 1988. After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, Al-Qaeda directed the spearhead of the struggle against the United States, the countries of the so-called "Western world" and their supporters in Islamic countries. The purpose of the organization is to overthrow secular regimes in Islamic countries, to create a "Great Islamic Caliphate". After the bombings of US embassies in the capitals of Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, al-Qaeda acquired the status of the No. 1 terrorist organization in the world. Al-Qaeda is responsible for the planning and implementation of a number of major terrorist attacks, including the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States. The chain of events that began with the attack on September 11, 2001 and linked to the activities of al-Qaeda and the measures to suppress it, is known as the War on Terrorism. Collaborates with Lashkar-e-Taiba, Lashkar-e-Jangvi and Caucasus Emirate.

History

Western researchers distinguish 5 periods in the history of Al-Qaeda: emergence (late 1980s), "wild" period (1990-1996), heyday (1996-2001), periods of existence in the form of a network ( 2001-2005) and fragmentation (after 2005). Origins. Afghan war (1979-1989) On July 3, 1979, US President Jimmy Carter signed a presidential decree authorizing the funding of anti-communist forces in Afghanistan. The program primarily relied on the use of the Pakistani Intelligence Agency (ISI) as an intermediary for distributing funding, supplying weapons and training to the Afghan opposition forces. In addition to funding from similar programs of the British MI6 and the Special Air Service, Saudi Arabia and the People's Republic of China, ISI was engaged in arming and training over 100,000 fighters of illegal armed groups from 1978 to 1992. They were also engaged in recruiting volunteers from Arab states into the ranks of Afghan gangs to fight the Soviet troops stationed in Afghanistan. As part of Operation Cyclone, since 1980, there has been an increase in the volume of American military assistance to Afghan militants: in 1984, its volume amounted to 12