Asia Minor (Greek Μικρά Ασία), or Anatolia (Greek Ανατολία; Latin Asia Minor; Tour. Anadolu) is a peninsula in western Asia, the middle part of the territory of modern Turkey. The length from west to east is more than 1000 km, the width is from 400 km to 600 km. The territory is approximately 506 thousand km².
The name "Anatolia" comes from the Greek word ἀνατολή, which means "sunrise (of the sun), east."
Anatolia is traditionally called the Asian possessions of Turkey (as opposed to Rumelia, the European part of Turkey).
It is washed by the Black, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas and the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits, separating Asia from Europe. The peninsula is far, compared to all other parts of Asia, pushed to the west. The eastern border of Asia Minor as a physical-geographical zone is usually considered a line (the so-called Anatolian diagonal) from the Mediterranean coast to the south of Iskenderun Bay, then between the 40th meridian and Lake Van, and in the north the border approximately coincides with the lower course of the Chorokha River. Off the coast of Asia Minor there are islands (Cyprus, Rhodes, Chios, Lesbos, etc.).
The peninsula is dominated by mountainous terrain. Most of it is occupied by the semi-desert Asia Minor Highlands, in the east - by the Armenian Highlands. The interior of the Asia Minor Highlands is occupied by the Anatolian Plateau, which is bordered in the north by the outlying Pontic Mountains (from the ancient Greek Πόντος - sea) and in the south of the Taurus Mountains (ancient Greek Όρη Ταύρου - bull mountains). Along the coast are narrow lowlands with Mediterranean vegetation.
The Cenozoic folded structures of the region continue the structures of the Balkan Peninsula. The formation of the modern relief took place in the Neogene and the first half of the Tertiary period, when the region, together with the neighboring territories of Europe and the adjacent parts of the modern Mediterranean, was subjected to uplifts, subsidence and fragmentation. At this time, Asia Minor separated from the Balkan Peninsula, the Marmara and Aegean Seas, the Dardanelles and the Bosporus were formed, and the coastal strip was dissected. The manifestation of volcanic processes is associated with fault lines (especially in the east of the Asia Minor Highlands). Strong seismic activity is observed in the western part of the region.
The Pontic Mountains are almost everywhere