Ankara (tur. Ankara [ˈaŋkaɾa] listen) is the capital of the Republic of Turkey. The population of the city as of December 31, 2015 was 5 million 270 thousand 575 people. It is the second most populous city in the country after Istanbul.
The city was founded in the 7th century BC. NS. called Ankyra (Greek ankyra, Latin ancora). The term "langar" and its phonetic variants are often found in place names in Central Asia and the Middle East. There is a point of view that the city arose where the migrating Celtic tribe of Galatians settled. The name has long been used in the form of Angora, from which the surviving Russian concepts are derived: Angora goats, cats, Angora wool, etc. After the transfer in 1923 to the city of the capital of the state, the modern form of Ankara is officially fixed.
The city is located on the Anatolian plateau, at the confluence of the Ankara and Chubuk rivers, at an altitude of approx. 938 m above sea level in the central part of the country. The distance to the Black Sea is about 400 km, to the Mediterranean - 500 km.
Ankara is one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor. Known since the 7th century BC under the Greek name Angora or Ankira (Ἄγκυρα, "anchor"), located at the crossroads of busy trade roads connecting Europe and Asia. In the late Byzantine period, a large number of wealthy Greek families lived in the city.
In 1071, after the defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert, Ankara came under the control of the Seljuks.
In 1098, the city was taken by storm from the Turks by the knights participating in the 1st Crusade, but after their departure the city was again occupied by the Turks.
In 1118, the Byzantines managed to temporarily regain control of Angira. After being defeated by the Turks at Myriokephalus in 1176, and also after the loss of Cotiyeus in 1182, the defense of Angira became logistically impossible for the Greeks. In 1183, the Greeks lost the city again, this time forever. At the end of the 12th century, Orthodoxy in the city was rapidly declining.
In 1402, a battle took place near Ankara between Timur and Sultan Bayezid I, which went down in history as the Battle of Angora. The Sultan's army was defeated, and he himself was captured by Timur. The city, as well as its surroundings, suffered from these events, but during the reign of Murad II, the city began to gradual