Archaeology

Article

August 11, 2022

Archeology (ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος "ancient" + λόγος "word, doctrine") is a historical discipline that studies the past of mankind from material sources. Archeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In Europe, it is often treated as a discipline in its own right or as a field of other disciplines, while in North America, archeology is a field of anthropology. Some researchers consider Archeology to be a source study discipline, which, by its methodological nature, is similar to forensic science.

Description

Archaeologists study human history from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago to recent decades. At the same time, archeology differs from paleontology, which studies fossil remains. It is especially important for the study of prehistoric societies, for which there can be no written documents to study. The history of primitive society includes more than 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic to the emergence of literacy in societies around the world. Archeology has various goals that range from understanding the history of a culture, to reconstructing the past, to documenting and explaining changes in human society over time. The basic principle of archeology is that any human activity leaves traces. The discipline involves surveying, excavating and ultimately analyzing the collected data to learn more about the past. In a broad sense, archeology relies on interdisciplinary research. It is based on anthropology, history, ethnology, geography, geology, linguistics, semiotics, sociology, textual criticism, physics, computer science, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleography, paleontology, paleozoology and paleobotany, etc. Archeology developed from antiquarianism in Europe during the XIX century and has since become a discipline practiced throughout the world. Archeology has been used by nation states to create specific representations of the past. Since its early development, various specific disciplines of archeology have been developed, including maritime archeology, feminist archeology, and archeoa