August 11, 2022

Auto-da-fe (auto-da-fe, out-da-fe, auto de fe; port. auto da fé, Spanish auto de fe, lat. actus fidei, lit. - “act of faith”) - in the Middle Ages in Spain and Portugal - a solemn religious ceremony, which included processions, worship, speeches by preachers, public repentance of condemned heretics, reading and execution of their sentences, including burning at the stake.


It is believed that auto-da-fe appeared with the beginning of the Inquisition (XIII century), it became widespread from the end of the XV century, acquiring the character of a mass theatrical ritual performance. However, back in 296, an edict was issued by the emperors Diocletian and Maximinus on the need to burn the Manichaeans. In 1022, several heretics were burned in France, including the former confessor of Queen Constance, Etienne. Anna Komnena describes in detail in the "Alexiad" the burning of the Bogomil Basil in 1025 at the stake, saying about the emperor that he made a decision "new, unusual in character, unheard of in its courage." Actually, auto-da-fe is any celebration organized by the Inquisition on the occasion of the announcement of the verdict (the corresponding name in France is "sermo generalis" - a general sermon). The mechanism for proclaiming auto-da-fe often served to enrich the royal treasury. The practice of auto-da-fe was established in Spain along with the strengthening of the Inquisition there at the end of the 15th century, the first auto-da-fe (burning) of six people was held in Seville in 1481. The Inquisition also operated in the Spanish colonies of America. The practice later assumed enormous proportions during the 16th century, and lasted until the end of the 18th century, when the auto-da-fé became rarer. In Portugal, where the Inquisition was established in 1536, it was not on such a large scale. Its influence fell sharply under Pombal, in the second half of the 18th century. Auto da fe took place in Mexico, Brazil and Peru. They were also held in the Portuguese colonies - in Goa, India after the establishment of the Inquisition there in the period 1562-1563. In 1808, the Inquisition was abolished by King Joseph Bonaparte. Ferdinand VII restored it in 1814, the Cortes constitution of 1820 abolished it again, and reintroduced it again; finally abolished in 1834. The last auto-da-fe took place in 1826 in Valencia by hanging (burning �