Battle for Moscow

Article

October 17, 2021

Battle for Moscow (Moscow Battle, Battle of Moscow, September 30, 1941 - April 20, 1942) - military operations of Soviet and German troops in the Moscow direction. It is divided into 2 periods: defensive (September 30 - December 4, 1941) and offensive, which consists of two stages: the counteroffensive (December 5, 1941 - January 7, 1942) and the Soviet offensive (January 7 - March 30, 1942). In Western historiography, the battle is known as Operation Typhoon. The battle unfolded in an area whose borders in the north ran along the Volga river from Kalyazin to Rzhev, in the west - along the rockad railway line Rzhev - Vyazma - Bryansk, in the south - along the conditional line Ryazhsk - Gorbachevo - Dyatkovo. At the defensive stage of the battle, the following were carried out: Oryol-Bryansk, Vyazemskaya, Mozhaisk-Maloyaroslavetskaya, Kalininskaya, Tula, Klinsko-Solnechnogorsk and Naro-Fominsk front-line operations. On December 5, 1941, the Red Army launched a counteroffensive along the entire front near Moscow, carrying out a number of successful front-line offensive operations and threw the Germans back 150-300 kilometers from the capital. The battle for Moscow is one of the turning points in World War II and World War II.

Antecedents

The war with the Soviet Union, despite the initial victories, developed for the German command in a slightly different scenario than with Poland or Western European countries. The blitzkrieg plan (Operation Barbarossa) envisioned the capture of Moscow during the first 10-12 weeks of the war. However, despite the successes of the Wehrmacht in the first days of the offensive, the increased resistance of the Red Army and a number of objective reasons prevented its implementation. Only the Battle of Smolensk in July-September 1941 delayed the advance of the invaders to Moscow by two months. The German strategists were unable to fully foresee all the costs associated with a significant expansion of the front, wear and tear of the material part of the strike forces and a drop in the offensive spirit of soldiers and officers in the event of unforeseen stubborn resistance from the enemy. By the beginning of September 1941, the Moscow direction remained the main one for the German High Command. In OKH telegram from 31

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