January 24, 2022

Theology, or theology (tracing paper of the Greek θεολογία from the Greek θεός "God" + Greek λόγος "word; teaching, science") is a systematic exposition and interpretation of any religious teaching, the dogmas of any religion. It is a complex of disciplines involved in the study, exposition, substantiation and defense of the dogma about God, his activities in the world and his revelation, as well as related teachings about moral norms and forms of worship. Theology should be distinguished from religious studies and the philosophy of religion.


The word "theology" (theology, other Greek θεολογία, Latin theologia) had different meanings at different times. In the meaning of the doctrine of God, the word "theology" was established from the first half of the XIII century after the appearance of Abelard's book "Christian Theology" (lat. Theologia christiana) and the opening of the theological faculty at the University of Paris.

Ancient Greece

In Greek thought, the word θεολογία meant "the doctrine of the gods". The word comes from other Greek. θεολόγοι ("theologians"); so the Greeks called the ancient Greek poets who wrote down the legends about the gods: Orpheus, Hesiod, Homer. Later, theologians began to be called interpreters of ancient myths, for example, Pherekides of Syros and Epimenides of Crete. For Aristotle, theology is a part of philosophy (along with mathematics and physics), “the doctrine of the divine” (ancient Greek φίλοσοφία θεολογική). The theological doctrine of Aristotle substantiated the need for astrology. Later, in the Middle Ages, interest in astrology, which was forbidden to Christians, manifested itself in the fact that even Svyatoslav's Izbornik contained astrological information. The Stoics interpreted philosophical theology as the study of divine revelation about the structure of the world. So, Mark Terentius Varro distinguished between mythical theology (which poets are engaged in), physical (for philosophers) and civil (which the people know).

Early Christianity

Varro's interpretation of theology was criticized by Bl. Augustine (see “On the City of God”, book 18), who understands by true theology “the theory that gives an explanation about God”, “teaching or speech about the Deity” (“On the City of God”, book VI, ch. 5 -8, Book VIII, Chapter 1) in contrast to the pagan ("fabulous") doctrine of the gods. But until the Middle Ages, Christian cars

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