May 28, 2022

Bulgaria (Bulgarian Bulgaria [bɤ̞lˈɡarijɐ]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Republic of Bulgaria [rɛˈpublikɐ bɤ̞lˈɡarijɐ]) is a state in South-Eastern Europe, in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, occupies 22% of its area .. The population is 6,951,482 people (for 2019), and the territory is 110,993 km². Bulgaria ranks 103rd in the world in terms of territory and 107th in terms of population. In the European Union, it ranks 11th and 16th in terms of territory and population, respectively. The capital is Sofia. The official language is Bulgarian. The monetary unit is the Bulgarian lev. The country was named after the ethnonym of the Bulgarian people. In the east it is washed by the Black Sea. It borders with Greece and Turkey in the south, with Serbia and North Macedonia in the west and with Romania in the north. The total length of the borders is 2245 km, of which 1181 km are land, 686 km are river (of which 470 km run along the Danube) and 378 km along the Black Sea. The longest distance between the extreme geographical points is 520 km from west to east and 330 km from north to south. Parliamentary republic with presidential rule. In 2016, Rumen Radev was elected President of Bulgaria for a five-year term, subsequently re-elected for a second term in 2021. According to the administrative division, the country is divided into 28 regions, which are subdivided into 265 communities. According to the constitution, Bulgaria is a secular state. A significant part of the population (about 78%) professes Orthodoxy. It is an industrial country with developed agriculture. One of the main sectors of the economy are also tourism and services. The country is experiencing a demographic crisis and ranks 73rd in terms of life expectancy. According to the IMF, GDP at PPP for 2018 amounted to $159.681 billion ($22,700 per person). Member of the UN since 1955, OSCE since 1975, BSEC since 1992, Council of Europe since 1992, WTO since 1996, NATO since 2004 and EU since 2007.


The name of the country comes from the name of the Turkic tribes of the Bulgars, who inhabited the steppes of the Northern Black Sea region to the Caspian Sea and the North Caucasus from the 4th century and migrated in the 2nd half of the 7th century partially to the Danube region, and later to the Middle Volga region and a number of other regions. Some historians question the identification of the Bulgars as a Turkic tribe,