May 22, 2022

A bomber is a military aircraft designed to destroy ground, underground, surface, underwater targets with bomb and / or missile weapons.

Development history

Appearance of the bomber

The first attempts to use airplanes against ground targets were made before the First World War. Initially, instead of bombs, metal darts (arrows or so-called flechettes) were used, slightly larger than a pencil. They were dropped from the aircraft on the infantry and cavalry of the enemy. An arrow weighing 30 grams pierced a 150 mm wooden block. The creator of the aerial bomb can be called the Italian lieutenant Carlo Zipelli, who conducted many experiments with prototypes of aerial bombs. The main task was to create a fuse that would work at the most opportune moment. Experiments with grenades equipped with fuses of various types cost the life of the inventor himself. The first ever bombing in combat conditions was made by the Italian pilot Lieutenant Gavotti. November 1, 1911 during the Italo-Turkish war, he dropped 4 bombs weighing 4.4 pounds (1.8 kg) on ​​Turkish troops in Tripoli. Later, the Italians began to use 10 kg bombs, equipped with ready-made striking elements - buckshot balls. Before the start of World War II, "bomber" requirements for combat aircraft projects appeared in airplane competitions. In particular, at the competition of 1912 in the Russian Empire, it was regulated that the airplane provided "the greatest convenience for handling firearms and throwing bombs."

World War I

At the beginning of the war, bombing from airplanes was more of a deterrent. The role of the bombers was performed by light reconnaissance aircraft, the pilots of which took several small bombs with them. They dropped them manually, aiming at the eye. Such raids were of a random nature and were not coordinated with the actions of the ground forces. The first bombardment of Paris was carried out on August 30, 1914 by Lieutenant Ferdinand von Hiddesen from a Rumpler 3C aircraft, dropping 4 hand grenades. One woman died in the attack. On November 4, 1914, the Gotha LE2 crew, piloted by Lieutenant Kaspar and Oberleutnant Roos, made