Hungary

Article

May 28, 2022

Hungary (Hung. Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ], literally: “Country of Hungarians, Hungarian country” (magyar (moder) “Hungarian” and ország (orsag) “country”)) is a state in Central Europe. In the period from 1989 to 2011, the country was officially called the Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság, moder köztarsoság), but on January 1, 2012, the new constitution of Hungary came into force, officially approving the abbreviated name of the state - Hungary (Magyarország). Population - 9 772 756 people. (2019), the area of ​​the territory is 93,036 km². It ranks 93rd in the world in terms of population and 108th in terms of territory. The capital is Budapest. The official language is Hungarian. According to the state system - a unitary parliamentary republic. Since May 2010, Viktor Orban has been the prime minister. It is subdivided into 20 administrative-territorial units, 19 of which are county, and 1 is a city of republican subordination, equivalent to county. A landlocked continental state in the center of Europe. It has land borders with Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Austria. Most of the believers (about 54.5% of the population) profess Catholicism. An industrial country with a dynamically developing economy. The volume of nominal GDP for 2015 amounted to 137 billion US dollars (about 13,910 US dollars per capita). The monetary unit is the Hungarian forint (the exchange rate, as of June 2, 2021, is 283 forints per 1 US dollar). Member of the UN since 1955, joined the GATT in 1973, joined the IMF and IBRD in 1982, the Council of Europe in 1991. Since 1999 - a member of NATO, since 2004 - of the European Union. From January 1, 2011, Hungary held the presidency of the European Union for six months.

Etymology

In Russian, the word "Hungarian" is a borrowing from Polish. węgier "Hungarian" from Praslav. *ǫgҫrinъ (ancient Russian ѹgrin, Ukrainian Ugorets, Serbian-old Slavic ѫgrin, pl. ѫgre, Serbian Ùgar, genus p. Ugra, also Ùgrin, Bulgarian Ungartsi, Croatian ugor, Slovene vogar, vogrin, Czech uher, Slovak uhor, Polish węgier, węgrzyn, Lit. veñgras). Other Indo-European languages ​​also have this word: lat. Ungari, Ungri, Greek. Οὑγγρικός, Οὖγγροι, fr. hongrois, German. Ungar(n) Hungarian(s), Swedish ungrare. All these exoethnonyms originated from Bulg. on ogur, Turk. on oguz "ten Oghuz tribes". The initial h- probably developed under the influence of ethnic