Woolley, Leonard


January 23, 2022

Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (eng. Charles Leonard Woolley; April 17, 1880, Upper Clapton, now Hackney within London, - February 20, 1960, London) is a leading English archaeologist of the first half of the 20th century. For more than forty years, he has been excavating monuments of the material culture of Sumer, Ancient Egypt, Syria, Nubia, and ancient Anatolia. In 1935 he was awarded a knighthood for his discoveries, in 1957 he was awarded the Petrie medal of the University of London, he also had a military award - the French Military Cross. Honorary Doctor of Dublin and St. Andrews Universities. Honorary member of the Turkish Historical Organization, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Royal Society of Antiquities. He was married to Katherine Woolley, one of the first female archaeologists, who worked with him until her own death in 1945. Leonard Woolley came from a family of a clergyman. In 1904 he graduated from the New College of Oxford University (Bachelor of Theology, Master of Arts), in 1905-1908 he served at the Ashmolean Museum as assistant curator. In the future, Woolley never worked in educational or scientific institutions, existing on grants from private foundations and royalties from the publication of his books. The first excavations were carried out in Britain in the summer of 1907. In 1908-1911, he worked on excavations in Nubia, which resulted in the first surveyed cemetery of the state of Meroe in Karanoga. Further in the seasons 1912-1914 he worked in Carchemish, where Thomas Lawrence was his assistant. In 1914-1916 he served in British intelligence in Egypt (formally he was in the Royal Auxiliary Navy) with the rank of captain, in 1916-1918 he was in Turkish captivity, was released after the end of the First World War. In the season of 1919, he resumed excavations in Karchemish, interrupted due to hostilities in Syria. In 1921-1922 he led the excavations at Amarna in Egypt. He was most famous for leading the Anglo-American expedition of the University of Pennsylvania to the ruins of ancient Ur (12 seasons in 1922-1934). Woolley was a specialist generalist; in the 1930s he became interested in the ancient connections of the Aegean region, the Eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia. In 1937-1939 and 1947-1949 he led

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