German Democratic Republic

Article

May 22, 2022

German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR); unofficially also East Germany (German: Ostdeutschland) is a socialist state that existed in Central Europe from October 7, 1949 to October 3, 1990. The GDR was formed on October 7, 1949 on the site of the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany in East Germany, four years after the end of World War II. The GDR was one of the main members of the socialist alliance of the WTO, until the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany in 1990. Having adopted the socialist political regime from the Soviet Union, the GDR was one of the leading countries of the socialist camp throughout the history of the Cold War.

History

Soviet zone of occupation (1945-1948)

After the end of World War II in 1945, four zones of occupation were formed in Germany. One of them was the Soviet zone of occupation, which consisted of five German states: Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia. On July 4, 1945, the state administrations were formed in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony and Thuringia. On July 27, 1945, the central administrations were founded, performing the functions of ministries. On June 11, 1947, the German Economic Commission was created, which included the chairmen of the central administrations, and the socialist Heinrich Rau was appointed its chairman in 1948. The chairmen of the central administrations and the chairman of the German Economic Commission were appointed by the Soviet Military Administration (SVA). On June 13, 1946, provisional Landtags were formed with equal representation of the parties of the SED, LDPG, CDU, the trade union association of the OSNP and public organizations, the Landtags were restored, which received the right to adopt land constitutions and land laws, kreistags, city and municipal representations, elections for which were scheduled on October 20, 1946, as well as state governments, kreisrats, city councils and community councils, which were to be formed by representative bodies of the corresponding level, higher regional courts, regional courts �