Main Caucasian Range


May 28, 2022

The Main Caucasian (Dividing) Range is a continuous mountain range stretching for more than 1100 km from the northwest to the southeast from the Black Sea (Anapa region) to the Caspian Sea (Mount Ilkhydag northwest of Baku). The Caucasian Range divides the Caucasus into two parts: Ciscaucasia (North Caucasus) and Transcaucasia (South Caucasus). The Main Caucasian Ridge separates the basins of the Kuban, Terek, Sulak and Samur rivers in the north and the Inguri, Rioni and Kura in the south. The mountain system near the East European Plain, which includes the Main Caucasian Range (or the Greater Caucasian Range), is called the Greater Caucasus, in contrast to the Lesser Caucasus, a vast highland located south of the Rioni and Kura valleys and connected directly with the uplands of Western Asia. Some sources draw the border between Asia and Europe along the watershed of the Caucasus Range. As well as other geographical objects of the Caucasus Mountains, in oral speech it can be called simply "Caucasus"


The division of the Caucasus into: Western Caucasus (limited from the east by Elbrus); Central Caucasus; Eastern Caucasus (limited from the west by Kazbek).

General information

The entire system of the Main Caucasian Range occupies approximately 260,000 km². The northern slope covers about 145,000 km², while the southern slope covers about 115,000 km². The width of the Caucasus Range in the western (slightly west of Elbrus, and including the Elbrus mountain range) and eastern (Dagestan) parts is about 160 ... 180 km, in the central - about 100 km; both extremities are strongly narrowed and represent (especially the western) an insignificant width. The highest heights in the center, where the highest and rocky section of the ridge is located, are the Bezengi wall with the peaks of Shkhara (5068 m), Dzhangitau (5058 m) and others. short ridges or mountain groups connected with the watershed ridge by spurs and cut through in many places by deep gorges of rivers, which, starting in the Main Range and breaking through the advanced uplands, descend to the foothills and exit onto the plains. Thus, almost along its entire length (in the west - from the south, in the east - from the north) to the water