Sassanid state

Article

May 28, 2022

The state of the Sassanids is also Sasanian Iran, the official name is the Kingdom of the Iranians (pehl. 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānšahr; parf. Aryānšahr), it is also the New Persian kingdom, or the Second Persian Empire - an ancient and medieval state, formed on the territory of modern Iraq and Iran, as a result of the fall of the power of the Parthian Arkisha and Iran to the power of the Persian Sassanid dynasty. Existed from 224 to 651. The term empire is often used in relation to the Sassanid state.

History

The Sassanid dynasty was founded by Ardashir I Papakan after defeating the Parthian king Artaban V (Persian اردوان‎ Ardavan) of the Arsacid dynasty. The last Sasanian Shahinshah (King of Kings) was Yazdegerd III (632-651), who was defeated in a 14-year struggle with the Arab Caliphate. At the end of the 3rd - beginning of the 4th centuries, a number of regions in the East fell away from the empire, but during the reign of Shapur II (reigned in 309-379), power in the previously lost regions was restored. Under the treaty of 387, the regions of Mesopotamia and most of the Armenian kingdom went to the Sassanids. In the 5th century, the kings of the local dynasties of Armenia, Caucasian Albania and Iberia were replaced by Sasanian governors. In the 2nd half of the 5th century, uprisings took place in Transcaucasia, in 571-572 - in Armenia. After the emergence of the Mazdakit movement at the end of the 5th century, profound changes took place in the state in the system of government, socio-political structure and culture. The empire reached its greatest prosperity under Khosrov I Anushirvan. Under Khosrov I, part of the old nobility found itself in direct economic dependence on the state and the king, and the role of the bureaucratic apparatus and officials also increased. From the beginning of the VI century there were wars with Byzantium, which took place with varying success. In 558-568, the Turkic Khaganate defeated the Hephthalites, and the territories of a number of regions in Afghanistan and Central Asia became part of the Sassanid state. Yemen was conquered around 570. Around 589, the Turks who invaded the state were defeated. The long war with Byzantium led to the depletion of the material resources of the state. This, as well as a sharp increase in taxes, undermined the political and economic power of the state of Sa