Georgia

Article

January 24, 2022

Georgia (Georgian საქართველო [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ], Sakartvelo) is a state located in the western part of Transcaucasia on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Refers to Western Asia; is often considered as a country at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, sometimes as part of modern Europe. The population, according to the results of the official 2014 census, is 3,713,804 people (according to estimates at the beginning of 2021 - 3,728,573 people), the territory is 69,700 km². It ranks 131st in the world in terms of population and 119th in terms of territory. The capital is Tbilisi. The official language is Georgian. Georgia is a unitary state with a parliamentary form of government. On December 16, 2018, Salome Zurabishvili took over as President of Georgia, and Irakli Garibashvili has been Prime Minister since February 22, 2021. According to the Constitution, Georgia includes 2 autonomous republics, 9 regions and a capital city equivalent to them. Georgia is washed by the Black Sea in the west; borders with Russia in the east and north, Armenia and Turkey in the south and Azerbaijan in the southeast. The territories of Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali region are de facto not controlled by the Georgian government and are regarded by it, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, the United States and the European Commission as parts of Georgia occupied by Russia. Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela and Syria recognize them as independent states of Georgia, the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia.

Etymology

The endonym of Georgia (“საქართველო, Sakartvelo” – “country of the Kartvelians”) goes back to the name of Kartli (Georgian ქართლი) — one of the main historical and geographical regions of Georgia and the cradle of Kartvelian statehood. The name of Georgia in English - “Georgia”, apparently comes from St. George, due to the popularity of the saint in these parts, and also due to the fact that St. George is the patron saint of Georgia - in the Middle Ages there were 365 churches of St. George. The name “Georgia”, which is established in Russian and a number of other languages, most likely comes from “Gurjan”, or “Gurzan” from Arab-Persian sources. It is believed that these names come from the Arab-Persian Gurj (Gurjistan - "country of wolves"), which goes back to the Persian word gorg "wolf" and is associated with dre

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