Hudson Bay

Article

July 3, 2022

Hudson Bay (English Hudson Bay, French baie d'Hudson, Inuktitut ᑲᖏᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓗᐊ Kangiqsualuk ilua) is a part of the Arctic Ocean, also adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In fact, it is an inland sea, surrounded from the east, south and west by the lands of the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, as well as the territory of Nunavut.

Geography and Hydrography

The bay is connected by the waters of the Fox and Fury and Heckle Straits to the Arctic Ocean to the north and the Hudson Strait to the Labrador Sea to the east, but is mostly surrounded by land. In the north and west, it washes the continental coast of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, in the south - the provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, and in the east - the province of Quebec. From the north, the waters of the bay are limited by Baffin Island, to the south by the smaller islands of Southampton, Cotes and Mansel. There are no islands along the west coast, while the Sleeper, Ottawa, Nastapoka and Belcher island groups are located along the east coast. The coastal area, known as the lowlands of Hudson Bay, is mostly swampy, replete with lakes and peat bogs, under which permafrost occurs. The shores become higher only in the east and northeast, where there are cliffs formed by ancient sedimentary rocks. With a maximum length of 1500 km and a maximum width of 830 km, the area of ​​​​the water area, according to the British Encyclopedia, is 819 thousand km², according to the Great Russian Encyclopedia - 848 thousand km². Mostly shallow, the average depth is about 100 m, the maximum, according to the British Encyclopedia, is about 270 m, and according to the Great Russian Encyclopedia - 258 m. The total area of ​​the Hudson Bay drainage basin is about 3.8 million km², the average flow of water of all rivers flowing into it is 30,900 m³ / s. Of the rivers flowing into the bay, the largest (from west to east): Kazan, Thelon and Dubont across Chesterfield Bay to the northwest; Hayes, Nelson and Churchill to the west; Winisk and Severn in the southwest; La Grande, Eastmain, Nottaway, Moose with tributary Abitibi, Albany, Attawapiskat and Nastapoka through James Bay in the southeast. In addition, water from Fox Bay enters Hudson Bay through the Fox Strait, forming a counterclockwise current. Flow from the bay, reaching its maximum values ​​in July