Dachau (concentration camp)

Article

July 6, 2022

Dachau (German Dachau) is one of the first concentration camps in Germany, near the city of the same name Dachau.

History

It was founded on March 22, 1933 in Dachau (Federal State of Bavaria), not far from Munich. The Dachau concentration camp was designed by the future commandant of Dachau, Theodor Eicke, on the site of an ammunition factory. Eike contributed a lot to the functioning of the concentration camp itself. The camp he built was considered a benchmark for other concentration camps. It was Eike who developed a system in which the functions of guards were transferred to prisoners, who showed even greater rigidity in their treatment of other prisoners to alleviate their own plight. On February 27, 1933, the Reichstag was set on fire, and already in March, by decree of President Hindenburg, a state of emergency was introduced for a period of 5 years. The state of emergency untied the hands of the National Socialists, and the arrests of members of the Communist Party of Germany immediately began. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, Dachau held people who, for various reasons, were considered "polluting" the "Aryan race", according to racial theory. These were political opponents of the Nazi regime, primarily communists, socialists, as well as prostitutes, drug addicts and other asocial elements. But some of them (not Jews and not communists), having gone through the process of “re-education” (which in the first half of the 1930s could take only a few months), then went free. The concentration camp became the first "experimental training ground", where a system of punishments and other forms of physical and psychological influences on prisoners was worked out. The prisoners of Dachau were forced to work as free labor in the surrounding industrial enterprises, including the factories of the IG Farbenindustry concern. In the autumn of 1941, mass executions of Soviet commanders and political workers selected from the prisoner of war camps began in concentration camps - at least 34,000 people were killed. In Dachau, executions were carried out at the Hebertshausen training ground. The underground organization of prisoners operating in Dachau, led by Walter Neff and Georg Scherer, on April 28, 1945, the day before the arrival of American troops, raised an uprising, disrupting the existing