Resistance Movement (France)

Article

July 6, 2022

The Resistance Movement, or Resistance (fr. Résistance), is an organized national liberation, anti-fascist movement of popular resistance (had several organizational centers) of the occupation of France by Nazi German troops in 1940-1944, during World War II (1939-1945). Includes: anti-German combat activities of partisans (poppies, fr. Maquis) in France, sabotage against the German military, sabotage; dissemination of anti-German information and propaganda; harboring persecuted Jews, Gypsies and communists; activities outside France to strengthen the alliance with the anti-Hitler coalition and national power in the colonies (Fighting France of General de Gaulle; to a large extent coordinated underground activities within the country). Politically, the Resistance movement was heterogeneous and included people of various views, who cherished independent France - from right-wing Catholics to communists and anarchists.

"Vichy-Resistance"

The term "Vichy-Resistance" (fr. vichysto-résistance) was born in the French press to refer to a number of prominent politicians of the Vichy regime who sympathized with the Resistance and secretly participated in its activities. These included the future President of France, Francois Mitterrand, the Protestant theologian Marc Besnier, and a number of others.

Allied intelligence support

The activities of the Resistance were supported by the intelligence services of the United States and Great Britain: the first agent was trained by de Gaulle and delivered to France on January 1, 1941, in total, 375 US intelligence agents, 393 British intelligence agents and 868 de Gaulle agents were delivered to France. When the reserves of French-speaking agents were exhausted towards the end of 1943, the Allies began to form groups of three (consisting of one Englishman, one American and one Frenchman), who were dressed in military uniform and (unlike agents) openly acted together with the partisans. An example is Jacqueline Nearn, who, after the occupation of northern France, left for England, at the end of 1941 became an agent of the British special services and, after special training in January 1943, was abandoned in France. According to the result