Dniester

Article

October 17, 2021

Dniester (Ukrainian Dnister, Moldovan Nistru, Nistru, ancient Greek Τύρας, Latin Tyras, Tiras) is a transboundary river in Eastern Europe. It flows from the north-west to the south-east within the territory of Ukraine and Moldova (including through the territory controlled by the unrecognized PMR). It flows into the Black Sea.

Etymology

The Greeks called the Dniester Tyras (Greek Τύρας), the Italians - Genestrom, the ancient Germans - Agalingus, the Turks - Turla. In the Scythian-Sarmatian language, the word dānu meant water, river (in modern Ossetian - “don”). There is a version that the name Dniester comes from the Scythian-Sarmatian (ancient Iranian) Dānu nazdya, which means "border river". Another hypothesis relates the names of the Dnieper and Dniester to the Celtic don ("water"), respectively don-ieper and don-iester - "upper river" and "lower river". Version according to V. I. Abaev: "Dn (e)" - this is the Scythian-Sarmatian dānu - water, river, but the second part of the word "-str" is the Ossetian "'str" (the sound "y" in Ossetian is so short that in some cases it is practically not heard between consonants) and is translated into Russian as big or great, dating back to other Iranian (Scythian-Sarmatian) "* stūra" - big, huge. That is, the modern name of the Dniester River means Big River (water).

Geography

It originates in the Ukrainian Carpathians near the village of Volchye, Turkovsky district, Lviv region, on the slopes of the Chentyevka mountain (Carpathians - Sarmatian mountains in the Chronicle of Dlugosh) at an altitude of 870 m, flows into the Dniester estuary on the territory of the Odessa region, which is connected to the Black Sea. Length - 1352 km, pool area - 72,100 km². Average discharge of water in the lower course is 310 m³ / s. The volume of the annual runoff is 10.2 km³. The average slope of the river is 0.56 m / km. In the upper reaches, the Dniester flows in a deep narrow valley and has the character of a fast mountain river. The current velocity in this area is 2-2.5 m / s. Here a large number of tributaries flow into the Dniester, originating from the slopes of the Carpathians, mainly on the right. The largest of the tributaries in this section is the Stryi. Below the city of Galich (Ivano-Frankivsk region), the current becomes calmer, but the valley remains narrow and deep. The slope of the river is 0.7 m / km. In the middle reaches, tributaries flow only on the left: Zolotaya Lipa, Strypa, Seret, Zbruch, Smotrych, Muksha (from the territory of Ternop�

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