The domestic pig (lat. Sus domesticus, or Sus scrofa domesticus) is a large artiodactyl genus of wild boars (pigs), domesticated by humans about 7 thousand years ago (according to some studies, much earlier) and distributed mainly in Western countries, East Asia and in Oceania. Feral pigs (razorbacks) are found in North America, Australia and New Zealand. The body length is from 0.9 to 1.8 m, an adult weighs from 50 to 150 kg. Compared to other artiodactyls, which are more often herbivores, the domestic pig is omnivorous, like its ancestor, the wild boar.
Pigs are raised mainly for their meat and lard. World pork production in 2005 amounted to 97.2 million tons (according to the USDA).
Decorative dwarf breeds of pigs (minipigs) are popular animals for keeping at home. In France, specially trained pigs scavenge for truffles.
Origin and history of domestication
Archaeological finds indicate that as early as 12,700-13,000 years ago, wild pigs began to be domesticated in the Middle East in the areas of the Tigris basin. Initially, they were kept in a semi-wild state in the wild, just as pigs are kept now in New Guinea.
The remains of pigs dating back to over 11,400 years ago have been found in Cyprus. Pigs could only get to the island from the mainland, which suggests moving along with humans and domestication. Regardless of this, the domestication of pigs in China took place, which took place about 8000 years ago (according to other sources, the domestication of the pig in China took place in the eighth millennium BC).
A study of DNA from the teeth and bones of pigs found in Neolithic European settlements shows that the first domestic pigs were brought to Europe from the Middle East.
This stimulated the domestication of European wild pigs, which led in a short time to the third important moment in the history of domestication - the displacement of breeds of Middle Eastern origin in Europe. Modern domestic pigs have gone through several complex stages of mixing with European domestic breeds, which in turn were brought in antiquity from Europe to the Middle East. Historical sources shown