Old Russian architecture


August 11, 2022

Old Russian architecture - the architecture (architecture) of Kievan Rus and Russian principalities from the time of the birth of Russian statehood in the 9th century to the Mongol invasion. Until the end of the 10th century, monumental stone architecture was not known in Russia, but there were rich traditions of wooden construction, some forms of which subsequently influenced stone architecture. Significant skills in the field of wooden architecture (see Russian wooden architecture) led to the rapid development of stone architecture and its originality. After the adoption of Christianity, the construction of stone temples begins, the principles of construction of which were borrowed from Byzantium. The Byzantine architects called to Kyiv passed on to the Russian masters the extensive experience of the building culture of Byzantium.

General characteristics

Russian medieval architecture is an important part of the history of Russian society, as in most European countries. However, a significant difference between ancient Russian architecture and the medieval architecture of other European countries lies in the number of surviving buildings. If the Romanesque architecture of France or Italy has hundreds of surviving monuments, then throughout the entire Old Russian territory about 30 buildings of the pre-Mongol period have been preserved in a more or less intact state, while about 200 monuments are known to archeology. The ancient Russian architecture of the pre-Mongolian period is clearly divided into three periods: firstly, the architecture of Kievan Rus, secondly, the architecture of the period of the emergence of specific principalities of the XII century and, thirdly, the end of the XII - the first third of the XIII century. The architecture of Kievan Rus developed from the end of the 10th to the turn of the 11th-12th centuries. The first stone-brick buildings associated with the final formation of the ancient Russian state and the adoption of Christianity appeared in Russia at the very end of the 10th century. Greek masters erected the first monumental buildings in Kyiv. An independent construction artel developed in the city in the middle of the 11th century. Kyiv was the only center where there were qualified personnel who built cathedrals also in Novgorod and Polotsk. Only at the end of the 11th century, with the participation of Greek masters, a construction artel arose in Pereyaslavl. In e