Ancient Egypt

Article

January 24, 2022

Ancient Egypt (from ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος and lat. Aegyptus) is the name of the historical region and culture of a significant civilization of the Ancient World that existed in northeast Africa along the lower reaches of the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians themselves called their country Ta-Kemet (translit. Egyptian tꜣ-kmt), Tam-meri (tꜣ-mrj), Ta-ui (tꜣwj); and the Copts - Kemi (Copt. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ). The history of Ancient Egypt has about 40 centuries and is subdivided by researchers into the pre-dynastic period (refers to the end of the prehistoric period, a brief review of which is also given in the article), the dynastic period (the main stage in the existence of the Egyptian civilization for about 27 centuries), the Hellenistic period (synthesis with Greek Macedonian culture under the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty), the Roman period (as part of the ancient Roman state, as one of the most important provinces of the Roman Empire). The time limits of the existence of the ancient Egyptian culture, accepted by researchers, cover the period from the middle of the 4th millennium BC to the middle of the 4th millennium BC. e. until the 4th century AD e. The Byzantine-Coptic period (as part of Byzantium), although it already belongs to the early Middle Ages, is also sometimes considered as part of the study of Ancient Egypt. Temporary borders start from the 4th century and end with the Arab conquest in the 7th century. The rise of the ancient Egyptian civilization was to a large extent the result of its ability to adapt to the conditions of the river valley and the Nile Delta. Regular annual floods fertilizing the soil with fertile silt, as well as the organization of an irrigation system for agriculture, made it possible to produce crops in excess quantities, which ensured social and cultural development. The concentration of human and material resources in the hands of the administration contributed to the creation and maintenance of a complex network of canals, the emergence of a regular army and the expansion of trade, and with the gradual development of mining, field geodesy and building technology, it made it possible to organize the collective erection of monumental structures. The coercive and organizing force in ancient Egypt was a well-developed state apparatus, consisting of priests, scribes and administrators, headed by the pharaoh, who

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