Ancient Macedonia

Article

July 6, 2022

Macedonia (Greek Μακεδονία) is an ancient Greek state on the Balkan Peninsula with its capital in Aegah, and then in Pella, bordering the state of Epirus in the west, Thrace in the east, and Thessaly in the south. From here, Alexander the Great began his campaign against Persia.

Emergence of Macedonia

In the prehistoric period, Macedonia was the territory through which carriers of Neolithic cultures penetrated into Europe from Asia Minor (for more details, see Prehistoric Greece). At the end of the Bronze Age, various Indo-European tribes invade Macedonia from the north, some of which go further to Asia Minor, and some to Greece. The word "Macedonia" comes from the Greek. μακεδνός, which means "high". The first Macedonian state was founded in the 8th century BC. e. or the beginning of the 7th century BC. e. the Greek dynasty of the Argeads - settlers from the southern Greek city of Argos (hence the name Argeads), who traced their origin to Hercules. The first king of Macedonia - Perdikka I (according to later data - Karan).

Early Kingdom

The mythical founder of the Macedonian state was called Karan, identified with the son of the Argos king Temen Archelaus. According to Justin, 924 years passed from Karan to the last king of Macedonia, Perseus, which makes us date the reign of Karan to the 11th century BC. e. According to Herodotus and Thucydides, Perdiccas I, a native of Argos, located in the eastern part of the Peloponnese, is considered the founder of the reigning dynasty. According to Macedonian legends, he fled to Macedonia with two brothers and first took a job as a goatherd. According to ancient historians, the Macedonian tribes living in the Galiakmon River basin (Greek Αλιάκμων or Αλιάκμονας) and the adjacent plateaus, in the VIII century BC. e. began their movement east to the coast of the Aegean Sea and north to the Strymon River (Στρυμών or Στρυμόνας), displacing, exterminating or assimilating the local tribes of Illyrian, Thracian, Phrygian origin. Inheriting, as it was believed, the lands of the mythical kingdom of Midas, Macedonia, led by the Argead dynasty, took shape as an independent state under Tsar Alexander I at the beginning of the 5th century BC. e. It was under him that they began to mint the royal coin, under him Macedonia,