May 22, 2022

Er-2 (DB-240) is a Soviet long-range bomber, a twin-engine monoplane with a reverse gull wing. A total of 462 examples were built. In August and September 1941, the Yer-2 and TB-7 planes took part in a series of air raids on the capital of Nazi Germany, the city of Berlin.

History of creation and production

In 1936, at the Aircraft Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet, under the leadership of Robert Ludwigovich Bartini, a twin-engine passenger aircraft "Stal-7" was designed and submitted for testing. It was planned that the aircraft would have a maximum speed of 450 km / h with a range of 5000 km. On August 29, 1939, the Stal-7 aircraft set a new world record - a distance of 5068 km (on the route Moscow - Simferopol - Moscow), the aircraft flew in 12 hours 35 minutes, at an average speed of 405 km / h. Even during the preliminary design of a passenger aircraft, R.L. Bartini proposed to create a long-range bomber based on it. However, at that time he did not receive support, because. the military believed that a bomber converted from a passenger aircraft would lose in flight performance and be worse in combat use than specialized aircraft of this class. The establishment of a world record by the aircraft "Stal-7" could not pass by the leadership of aviation, it was decided to make a long-range high-speed bomber out of a passenger liner. From the middle of 1939, Ermolaev was appointed chief designer for the creation of a long-range bomber, since R.L. was arrested in 1938. Bartini. On July 29, 1939, a decree was issued "On the production of an experimental aircraft DB-240" providing for the construction of two prototypes of a bomber. Converting a purely civilian aircraft into a bomber was not an easy task. The fuselage underwent the greatest changes, inside which they made a bomb bay and installed the equipment and weapons necessary for the bomber. The aircraft was designed in OKB-240 under the direction of V. G. Ermolaev. it became the development of the passenger aircraft "Stal-7", designed at the Research Institute of the Civil Air Fleet by aircraft designer R. L. Bartini. The development of DB-240 was carried out with the participation of R.L. Bartini, he was brought to the design bureau directly from prison at night, where he advised V. Ermolaev. One of the few long-range bombers of its time with