August 20, 2022

California (English California, American pronunciation: [ˌkæləˈfɔːrniə] ( listen)) is a US state located on the west coast of the country, on the Pacific Ocean. It borders the US states of Oregon (to the north), Nevada (to the east), and Arizona (to the southeast), as well as the Mexican state of Baja California (to the south). California is the 31st state of the United States and was formed on September 9, 1850. Prior to that, California at various times was under the rule of Spain and Mexico. California is the most populous US state (according to the 2020 US Census) and the 3rd largest by area (after Alaska and Texas). The capital is Sacramento and the largest city is Los Angeles. Other major cities: San Francisco, San Diego, San Jose. The state is known for its diverse climate and diverse population. California ranks first among US states in terms of GDP. The most important branches of the state economy are information technology, aerospace industry, oil production and refining, show business, and agriculture. It also houses the Honda Center arena.


Before the arrival of Europeans, the Indian population of California was extremely diverse both in language (about 75 different peoples, many of which were separate language groups or even families) and in lifestyle - from fishermen to nomads. Known are the Californian tribes of Chumash, Salinan (Salin), Maidu, Utians (Mivoki, Oloni), Modoki, Mojave, Pomo, Shasta, Tongva, Wintu, Esselens, Yokuts, Washo, Yana, Chimariko, Karuk, Hupa, Cahuilla. The first Europeans to explore these shores were Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542 and Sir Francis Drake in 1579. Until the 1730s, California was considered an island. In the middle of the 18th - early 19th centuries, Russians began to penetrate into California. After the second journey of Vitus Bering (1734-1743), the Russians established trading bases along the entire northwestern coast of America. Beginning in the late 18th century, Spanish missionaries built small settlements on vast tracts of land in the empty lands north of Baja California. After the independence of Mexico, the entire chain of such settlements (missions) was declared the property of the Mexican government, and they were abandoned. As a result of two expeditions,