Kars (Turkish Kars, Kurd Qers, Azeri Qars, Armenian Կարս, Ottoman قارص) is a city in eastern Turkey, the administrative center of Kars il From 929 to 961 - the capital of the Armenian kingdom of Bagratuni, from 963 to 1065 - the capital of the Armenian kingdom of Kars. Located on the Kars plateau, on the Kars river (right tributary of the Arpachai river). On June 12-13, 1829, A.S. Pushkin visited the city, heading for Erzurum.
There are suggestions that Kars was founded in the 4th century, however, stable references to the city are found in Armenian and Byzantine chronicles starting from the 9th century.
Kars was of great importance in the state and public life of medieval Armenia, it was the center of the Vanand province of the Ayrarat region. The city was also a major center of handicrafts and trade, through which the routes of international trade went. In 928-961. was the capital of Armenia, in 961 the Armenian king Ashot III moved the capital to Ani. After that, in the X-XI centuries, Kars remained the capital of the independent Armenian Vanand or Kars kingdom, which was ruled by the younger branch of the Armenian royal dynasty of Bagratids.
In 1064 the kingdom of Kars was annexed to Byzantium, and later conquered by the Seljuks. During the period of Seljuk hegemony, Armenians continued to make up the majority of the city's population. In 1206, together with a part of Northern Armenia, it was liberated by the Armenian-Georgian troops and became part of the possessions of the Zakarian clan within the Georgian kingdom. In 1386, Tamerlane invaded Armenia, including Kars. In 1514 it was captured by the Ottoman Empire, which turned it into a stronghold for spreading its influence in the Transcaucasus.
During the Russian-Turkish wars of the 19th century, the Kars fortress became one of the main objects of struggle in the Caucasian theater of operations.
Russian-Turkish War (1806-1812)
In 1807, Russian troops under the command of General Nesvetaev, pursuing the Turks, went to Kars and began an assault, but soon a categorical order from Count Gudovich was received: assault, do not suffer a great loss in people. " Nesvetaev decided not to risk it and withdrew his troops to the village of Paldyran, and then to Gumram.