Treaty of Kars


October 28, 2021

Treaty of Kars of 1921 - a treaty of friendship between the Armenian, Azerbaijan and Georgian SSR, on the one hand, and Turkey, on the other; concluded with the participation of the RSFSR on October 13, 1921 in the city of Kars at a conference convened on September 26 in pursuance of the Moscow Treaty between the RSFSR and Turkey on March 16, 1921.

Fundamentals and Significance

The Treaty of Kars entered into force on September 11, 1922. Consists of a preamble, 20 articles and 3 annexes. The duration of the contract was not specified. Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia: Askanaz Mravyan, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs; Pavel Makintsyan, People's Commissar for Internal Affairs; Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet Republic: Behbud Shahtakhtinsky, People's Commissar of State Control; Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia: Shalva Eliava, People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Alexander Svanidze, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and People's Commissar for Finance; Grand National Assembly of Turkey: Kazim Karabekir Pasha, Deputy of the Great National Assembly from Adrianople, Commander of the Eastern Front, Veli Bey, Deputy of the Great National Assembly from Burdur, Mukhtar Bey, Former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Works, Memduh Shevket Bey, Plenipotentiary Representative of Turkey in Azerbaijan; Of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic: Yakov Ganetsky, Plenipotentiary Representative in Latvia. The Kars Treaty extended to the Transcaucasian Soviet republics the main provisions of the Moscow Treaty, which provided for measures to establish trade relations and regulate financial and economic issues, adding to them a number of articles on facilitating border crossing by residents border zone and granting them the right to use pastures located on the other side of the border. The treaty helped to eliminate friction between Turkey and the Transcaucasian Soviet republics caused by attempts by some circles in Turkey to maintain the Alexandropol Treaty of 1920 in force. On the other hand, the Kars Treaty helped to strengthen Turkey's international position. In the interstate agreement between the USSR and Turkey, signed on 22 a�

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