Treaties of Kiel (1814)


January 24, 2022

The Kiel Peace Treaties of 1814 were the Swedish-Danish and Anglo-Danish peace treaties that ended the Anglo-Danish War of 1807-1814. Signed in the North German city of Kiel on January 14, 1814.

Treaty between Sweden and Denmark

Under the Swedish-Danish peace treaty, Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden. In return, Denmark received the island of Rügen and the right to Swedish Pomerania (except for Stralsund - a special regime was established for it). In 1816, these territories were transferred by Denmark to Prussia in exchange for Lauenburg and monetary compensation.

Anglo-Danish treaty

Under an agreement between Denmark and Great Britain, the latter returned to Denmark all Danish possessions captured by it during the war, except for the island of Helgoland. Great Britain received special rights in Stralsund, which was to serve as a base for English goods for 20 years and be open to English and Swedish trade without any restrictions. Denmark pledged to participate in the war against Napoleonic France.

Historical implications and significance

In addition to the end of the Anglo-Danish War, the treaties marked the end of the personal union of Denmark and Norway, which had existed since 1380 (first as part of the Kalmar Union, then from 1536 as part of the Danish-Norwegian Union) and had a great influence on the development of Norwegian culture. The Danish-Norwegian kingdom existed under the dominance of Denmark, whose royalty ruled in both Denmark and Norway. However, a personal union did not imply the subordination of one state to another, so the fact that Denmark "transferred" Norway to Sweden caused outrage in Norwegian society. The Kiel Treaty led to a series of events in 1814, the results of which were the adoption of the Norwegian Constitution, the Swedish-Norwegian war and the establishment of the Swedish-Norwegian union, in which Norway retained its constitution and had internal independence. Another significant consequence of the Kiel Treaty was that the original Norwegian territories - Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands - with which Norway entered into a union with Denmark, remained with Denmark. The loss of the overseas possessions of the Norwegian state - Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands - in 1814, and especially how this morning

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