July 6, 2022
Colombia (Spanish Colombia, /kəˈlʌmbiə/ kə-LUM-bee-ə, /-ˈlɒm-/ -LOM-;), the official name is the Republic of Colombia (Spanish República de Colombia [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]), is a state in northwestern South America, with territories in Central America. The capital is Bogota. It borders with Brazil and Venezuela in the east, in the south with Ecuador and Peru, in the west with Panama. It borders by sea with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is washed by the Caribbean Sea in the north and the Pacific Ocean in the west. In terms of population, the country ranks 2nd in South America after Brazil, 28th in the world and 3rd in terms of the number of Hispanic population. The territory of present-day Colombia was once inhabited by indigenous peoples, the most developed of which are Chibcha, Quimbaya and Tayrona, the country is one of the richest in the world in terms of the number of peoples living and the languages they use. The modern Colombian people appeared during the mixing of Europeans, Africans and the indigenous population, a significant number of immigrants from the Middle East live in the Colombian Caribbean. Colombia is home to the Amazon rainforest and the Llanos Orinoco. Colombia is the second most biodiverse country in the world. 54,871 species have been recorded here. However, it is among the eight countries with the greatest environmental damage. For the first time, Spanish colonizers entered Colombian soil in 1499, and in the first half of the 16th century, a period of active conquests began, as a result of which the Viceroyalty of New Granada was created with its capital in Bogotá. In 1819, independence from Spain was recognized, but already in 1831 the federation of Great Colombia collapsed. On the territory of modern Colombia and Panama, the Republic of New Granada was formed (1832), which was then transformed into the Granada Confederation (1858), and even later - into the United States of Colombia (1863). The final name of the Republic of Colombia was received in 1886, in 1903 Panama withdrew from the country. The Colombian economy ranks 4th in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS and a member of the UN, WTO, OAS, the Pacific Alliance and other international organizations. unitary state.