August 11, 2022

Freemasonry (Freemasonry, French Franc-maçonnerie, English Freemasonry) is a movement that appeared in the form of a secret society, which originates from little-known sources in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The main version of the origin of Freemasonry is considered to be the version of the origin of the medieval building guilds of masons, however, there are theories about the more ancient origin of Freemasonry, the beginning of which is derived from the Knights Templar or, in other versions, from the Rosicrucian Order. The name "Mason" or "Freemason" comes from the French. franc-maçon (in Old French masson, English freemason), a literal translation of this name is also used - a freemason. The ethics and philosophy of Freemasonry are based on monotheistic religions, on the ancient constitutions of freemasons, their regulations, statutes and codes. Freemasonry symbolically uses the tools of building societies and the legends of the building of Solomon's Temple to express metaphorically what both Freemasons and their critics describe as "a system of morality hidden in allegories and illustrated by symbols". Freemasonry is administratively organized into sovereign grand lodges (in some countries, the "great east"), each of which leads Masonic lodges within the boundaries of its own jurisdiction. The number of lodges, as a rule, varies from 15 to 200 people, united territorially. Local lodges are established by a Grand Lodge, which has only one in one country. Some Grand Lodges recognize each other, some do not, depending on following ancient Masonic rules. There are also organizations of additional degrees, in which members of symbolic Masonic lodges are members and which have their own independent governing bodies. However, in some Masonic organizations symbolic lodges may be subordinated to the governing bodies of these additional organizations. Freemasonry is now spread all over the world and is represented in various organizational forms: lodges, grand lodges, supreme councils, chapters, areopagus, consistories, federations and confederations. The total number of Freemasons in the world is estimated at 4,000,000 people.


The legendary history of Freemasonry before