Medical degrees and titles


August 11, 2022

Medical degrees and titles are degrees and titles in the field of medicine in the Russian Empire, which first appeared at Moscow University in accordance with the decree of Empress Catherine II “On granting Moscow University the right to give a doctoral degree to those who studied medical science in it” dated September 29, 1791.


In 1770, an attempt was made at the Moscow University for the first production of a student I. A. Sibirsky as a doctor of medicine. Sibirsky passed exams in theoretical and clinical medicine, chemistry and botany, then gave a public lecture, but his production as a doctor was not followed by the highest consent. After the signing of the decree “On granting Moscow University the right to give a doctoral degree to those who studied in this medical science” (1791), F. I. Barsuk-Moiseev (1794) became the first doctor of medicine. In the 19th century in the Russian Empire, degrees and titles in the field of medicine, unlike other university sciences, were determined by special provisions on academic degrees and partly by university charters. In 1803, Moscow University received the right to raise doctors to the academic degree in all branches of science. In the years 1803-1838, doctors in the Russian Empire were awarded the degrees of "Doctor", "Master of Medicine" and "Doctor of Medicine". According to the "Rules for testing medical, veterinary and pharmaceutical officials and in general persons engaged in medical practice" (1838), educational and practical titles were introduced: "doctor", "medical surgeon" (abolished in 1845), "doctor of medicine", "doctor medicine and surgery". Each rank testified to the official position and scientific qualification. The title "doctor" was awarded to graduates of medical faculties of universities and medical-surgical academies. A doctor of medicine, in addition to practical medical knowledge, had to have "indisputable evidence of his learning." The title "Doctor of Medicine and Surgery" required "special theoretical and practical knowledge of surgery." According to the Charter of 1884, the triad of doctoral degrees was replaced by one - "Doctor of Medicine", abolished in 1918. Doctor - the lowest scientific and practical medical degree, in contrast to the higher ones - doctors of medicine and up to