Meroe is an ancient city on the territory of modern Sudan, which became the capital of the state of Kush after the devastation of Napata by the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt Psammetik II in the 6th century BC. BC e. Located on the east side of the Nile between Aswan and Khartoum. The language of the state of Kush during the Meroitic period was the Meroitic language. The Meroe culture was heavily influenced by Ancient Egypt. In the first centuries BC e. - the first centuries A.D. e. Meroe successfully resisted the Roman invasions, but fell due to continuous Aksumite raids in the first quarter of the 4th century.
History of Meroe
The first settlements on the site of Meroe began to appear, apparently, as early as the 8th century. BC e. After the conquest of Egypt by Assyria in 671 BC. e. on the territory of the historical region of Kush, a kingdom was formed with the center in the city of Napata.
In the second half of the VI century BC. e. the capital of the state was moved to Meroe (hence the Meroitic kingdom). After the transfer of the capital, Napata retained its significance as a religious center. Royal tombs - pyramids were located here, the coronation of kings was held, the election of which was approved by the priests.
Around the middle of the 3rd century BC. e. King Meroe Ergamen (Irk-Amon) put an end to the political influence of the Napat priests, who until then had the opportunity to depose kings they did not like and nominate candidates for their successors. Information has been preserved that the king of Hellenistic Egypt, Ptolemy IV, and the king Ergamen maintained permanent diplomatic relations. Since that time, the power of the king is believed to become hereditary, Meroë also turns into a religious and cultural center.
During the period of Persian domination in Egypt, the Meroitic kingdom lost a number of its northern territories. In the II-I centuries BC. e. in connection with the decline of the political power of the Ptolemaic state and the aggravation of the social struggle within Egypt, the Meroitic kingdom began to interfere in Egyptian affairs, supporting popular movements in southern Egypt. When the Romans in 30 B.C. e. seized Egypt and the population of Thebaid tried to organize a rebuff to them, raising uprisings, detachments of the Ethiopians, led by the Kandaki, invaded Egypt, but were driven back, and the Egyptians were pacified. In 23 B.C. e. Roman troops led by the prefect Gaius Petronius captured Napata,