October 17, 2021
Napoleon I Bonaparte (cor. Napulione Buonaparte, Italian Napoleone Buonaparte, French Napoléon Bonaparte [napoleˈɔ̃ bɔnɑˈpaʁt]; August 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica - May 5, 1821, Longwood, Saint Helena island) - French emperor to the French ) in 1804-1814 and 1815, the commander and statesman who laid the foundations of the modern French state, one of the most prominent figures in the history of the West. Napoleone Buonaparte (as he called himself in the Corsican manner until 1796) began his professional military service in 1785 with the rank of junior lieutenant of artillery. During the French Revolution, he reached the rank of brigadier general after the capture of Toulon on December 18, 1793. Under the Directory, he became a divisional general and commander of the military forces of the rear after playing a key role in the defeat of the revolt of the 13th Vendemier in 1795. On March 2, 1796, he was appointed commander of the Italian army. In 1798-1799 he headed a military expedition to Egypt. In November 1799 (18 Brumaire) carried out a coup d'état and became the first consul. In subsequent years, he carried out a number of political and administrative reforms and gradually achieved dictatorial power. May 18, 1804 was proclaimed emperor. The victorious Napoleonic Wars, especially the Austrian campaign of 1805, the Prussian and Polish campaigns of 1806–1807, and the Austrian campaign of 1809, helped transform France into the main power on the continent. However, Napoleon's unsuccessful rivalry with the "ruler of the seas" Great Britain did not allow this status to be fully consolidated. The defeat of Napoleon I in the war of 1812 against the Russian Empire led to the formation of an anti-French coalition of European powers. Having lost the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, Napoleon could no longer resist the united army of the allies. After the entry of the coalition troops into Paris, he abdicated the throne on April 6, 1814 and went into exile on the island of Elba. He returned to the French throne in March 1815 (for a hundred days). The defeat at Waterloo forced him to abdicate a second time on June 22, 1815. His last years he lived on the island of St. Helena in captivity with the British, where he died of stomach cancer. His ashes from 1840 are in the House of Invalids in Paris.