German

Article

August 13, 2022

German (German Deutsch, pronounced: [ˈdɔʏ̯tʃ]; deutsche Sprache, pronounced: [ˈdɔʏ̯tʃə ˈʃpʁaːχə]) is the national language of Germans, Austrians, Liechtensteiners, German Swiss and German Americans; official language of Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, one of the official languages ​​of Switzerland, Luxembourg and Belgium. It is one of the most widely spoken languages ​​in the world after Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, English, Spanish, Bengali, Portuguese, French, Russian and Japanese. German is ranked seventh (after English, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Persian, French) in terms of use on the Internet. It is the most widely spoken language in Western Europe (more than 90 million speakers). German is also one of the official and working languages ​​of the European Union and a number of other international organizations. It belongs to the western group of the Germanic languages ​​of the Indo-European family. Writing based on the Latin alphabet, supplemented by three graphemes denoting umlauts (ä, ö, ü) and the escet ligature (ß). The oldest written monuments date back to the 8th century. The German language goes back to the Proto-Germanic language, which, in turn, is an offshoot of Proto-Indo-European. The change in the phonetic and morphological systems of the language as a result of the second movement of consonants led to its isolation from the related Germanic languages. In the Middle Ages, the formation of phonetics and morphology, the lexical structure and syntax of the Middle High German, and after it - the Early New High German language takes place. The modern German language, whose history begins around the second half of the 17th century, is otherwise called New High German. An important role in its formation was played by the translation of the Bible by Martin Luther, the work of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Johann Christoph Gottsched, the linguistic works of Johann Christoph Adelung, the brothers Grimm and Konrad Duden. The modern literary German language arose on the basis of High German dialects. In contrast, individual German dialects (for example, Low German or Alemannic) that did not fully participate in the High German movement or participated in others�