Nubia

Article

January 24, 2022

Nubia (Arabic النوبة‎, En-Nuba) is a historical region in the Nile Valley, between the first and sixth thresholds, that is, north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum and south of Aswan in Egypt. In the 19th century, the borders of Nubia were defined in different ways. According to one of the interpretations, it referred to the entire region of the Nile south from Egypt to Abyssinia and to the south, according to another - the space between Aswan and the mouth of the Atbara, according to the third - the region of the second waterfall, the country of the ancient nobads, or nubs ("Wadi Nuba"). Actually, Nubia was usually called the region of the middle reaches of the Nile, before the confluence of the Atbara and the Ethiopian foothills, and the more southern part of the Nile basin (the territory of modern Sudan, in the 18th century - the territory of the Sennar Sultanate) was called Upper Nubia. The name probably comes from the ancient Egyptian word nub - gold. In ancient times, various cultures and states successively existed on the territory of Nubia, such as the kingdoms of Kerma, Kush and others. The capital of the ancient Nubian kingdoms at that time in chronological order were the cities of Kerma, Napata and Meroe. In the 7th-14th centuries, several Nubian Christian states were located here. Then Nubia was Islamized and partially populated by Arab tribes. Nubia was a source of slaves and natural wealth (gold and ivory). Modern Nubians speak two related languages ​​​​of the Nubian branch of the Eastern Sudanese superfamily - Nobin (a descendant of Old Nubian) and Kenusi-Dongola, and some speak only Arabic.

History

Ancient Nubia

The history of Nubia can be traced back centuries for 5 thousand years and is closely connected with the development of the Egyptian civilization, located to the north. Ancient Egyptian culture had a powerful impact on Nubia. The first developed communities are found in Nubia during the Egyptian First Dynasty (3100-2890 BC). Around 2500 BC e. the Egyptians began to move south, and from them comes most of our knowledge of Nubia, the northern part of which the Egyptians called Wauat, and the southern part Cush. The strongest Nubian political entity at that time had its center in Kerma. Egyptian expansion was temporarily halted by the decline of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and the invasion of the Hyksos, who became allies of the Nubians. after mouth

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