Occupation of Kaluga
October 17, 2021
The occupation of Kaluga is a temporary occupation of the city of Kaluga by the Wehrmacht troops during the Great Patriotic War, which lasted from October 12 to December 30, 1941. The defense of Kaluga was part of the battle for Moscow. In September 1941, German bombers dropped the first bombs on the city. At the end of September, the evacuation of the population began, at the same time, in the first decade of October, German troops came close to the city. The capture of the city was recorded at 21:00 on October 12. The occupation forces established in Kaluga a commandant's office for military administration (including police forces to maintain order) and a city council for civil administration. On October 22, a zemstvo council was opened, under the control of which the Kaluga region passed. A prisoner of war camp was organized. The population of the city at this time was 51,000 people. The occupation power faced a shortage of food, cards and distribution of food were introduced, but the measures taken did not bring the desired effect, the townspeople were starving. Komsomol members and communists were registered, Jews were stripped of their rights and resettled in the Kaluga ghetto. The prisoners of war were subjected to bullying. The rest of the citizens were robbed, a policy of intimidation was carried out, including executions: executions and hanging in retaliation for the activities of the partisans. The liberation of Kaluga became the goal of the Kaluga offensive operation, which began on December 17, 1941. During the retreat, the Germans shot prisoners of war and set fire to the Jewish ghetto. The city was liberated by the troops of the Western Front on December 30, 1941.